Hull University Business School

Emeritus Professor Steve Armstrong

Professor Steve Armstrong

Professor Emeritus

Organisational Behaviour and HRM

  • Biography
  • Qualifications
  • Teaching
  • Research
  • Key Publications


Steven is Emeritus Professor of Organizational Behaviour at the University of Hull.

Steven moved into management education in the UK Higher Education sector in 1993. Since then he has supervised x24 PhD students to completion, helped organise 13 international events including 10 major conferences, presented more than 50 conference papers, edited 4 books, co-edited 8 books of conference proceedings, and authored more than 50 articles/book chapters. He has also served in a range of editorial roles including: Joint Editor-in-Chief of the International Journal of Management Reviews; Associate Editor of Academy of Management Learning & Education; and Consulting Editor of the Asia Pacific Journal of Management, Organization Management Journal, and Journal of Management Education. He remains a Member of the Chartered Institute of Management.

Within Hull University Business School, Steven previously served as: Director of the Research Centre for Management and Organisational Learning (2001-2006); Deputy Director of Research (2005-2007); Director of Research (2007-2010); Director of MBA and DBA programmes (2011-2016). Nationally, he has served as Editor-in-Chief of the International Journal of Management Reviews (2004-2009); Council Member of the British Academy of Management (2004-2009); Co-founder, Vice President and Treasurer of the European Learning Styles Information Network (1996-2013). Internationally, Steve has served on the Executive Committee of the Management Education and Development Division of the Academy of Management. Offices included: Member-at-Large (1999-2001); Division Research Chair (2002); Division Program Chair-Elect (2003); Division Program Chair (2004); Division Chair-Elect (2005); Division Chair (2006); President and Past Chair (2007).

Steven previously spent 15 years at the leading edge of research, design and development within the electronics industry where he was a Chartered Engineer, a Member of the Institution of Engineering and Technology, and became an R&D manager responsible for new product developments involving multi-million pound projects.


PhD (Leeds), MBA (Sheffield Hallam), BSc (Leicester DeMontfort), Postgraduate Certificate in Higher Education (Sunderland)


  • Research Methods
  • Generic Skills in Management Research
  • Leadership and Change Management
  • Organisational Behaviour and Development
  • Innovation and R & D Management
  • Work and Organizational Psychology


Steven’s research interests lie in the field of individual differences psychology. He is particularly interested in how differences in cognitive style (defined as characteristic and consistent approaches to the way individuals perceive, organize, evaluate and process information) affect the way individuals relate to one another, solve problems, make decisions, and communicate ideas in the workplace. He is also interested in how learning styles (defined as peoples consistent ways of responding to and using stimuli in the context of learning) affect knowledge acquisition in the context of management learning.

Outcomes investigated in the field of organization behaviour at the workplace include leader-member exchange, mentoring relationships, gender effects, behaviour in self-managing work-teams, entrepreneurship, career development, acquisition of managerial tacit knowledge, creativity and conflict, organisational commitment, expatriate management learning in cross-cultural contexts, and organizational citizenship behaviours. Outcomes investigated in the context of management learning and education includes student performance, student-supervisor relationships, and quality of research supervision.


Selected Journal Articles

  • Armstrong, S.J. & Li, Y. (2017). A Study of Anglo Expatriate Managers’ Learning, Knowledge Acquisition, and Adjustment in Multi-National Companies in China. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 16, 01.
  • Armstrong, S.J. Qi, M. (2016) A reassessment of the factor structure of the Allinson-Hayes Cognitive Style Index. Personality and Individual Differences, 101, 240-242.
  • Lin, Y., Li, Y., Zhao, S. & Armstrong, S.J. (2016) Political Networking Strategy, Corporate Entrepreneurship, and Firm Performance: The Moderating Effect of Dysfunctional Competition. International Journal of Conflict Management, 27, 4, 570-590.
  • Li, M. & Armstrong, S.J. (2015). The relationship between learning styles and personality in international business managers. Personality & Individual Differences, 86, 421-427.
  • Cools, E., Armstrong, S.J., & Verbrigghe, J. (2014). Methodological practices in cognitive style research: Insights and recommendations from the field of business and psychology. European Journal of Work and Organisational Psychology, Vol 23, Iss 4, pp. 627-641.
  • Franco, L.A., Meadows, M., Armstrong, S.J. (2013). Exploring individual differences in scenario planning workshops: A cognitive style framework. Technological Forecasting & Social Change. Vol 80, pp. 723-734.
  • Campbell, T. & Armstrong, S.J. (2013). A longitudinal study of individual and organizational learning. The Learning Organisation, Vol 20, No 3, pp. 240-258.
  • Armstrong, S.J., Cools, E. & Sadler-Smith, E. (2012). The role of cognitive styles in business and management: Reviewing 40-years of research. International Journal of Management Reviews, Vol 14, Iss 3, pp. 238-262.
  • Armstrong, S.J., Peterson, E.R., & Rayner, S.G. (2011). Understanding and defining ‘cognitive style’ and ‘learning style’: A Delphi Study. Educational Studies. DOI:10.1080.03055698.2011.643110
  • Armstrong, S.J. (2011). Continuing our quest for meaningful impact on management practice. Academy of Management Learning and Education Journal, Vol 10, No 2, pp. 181-187.
  • Armstrong, S.J. & Fukami, C. (2010). Self assessment of knowledge: A cognitive learning or affective measure? – Perspectives from the management learning and education community. Academy of Management Learning and Education Journal, Vol 9, No 2, pp. 335-342
  • Peterson, E., Rayner, S.G., & Armstrong, S.J. (2009). The Psychology of Cognitive Style and Learning Styles: Is there really a future? Learning and Individual Differences Journal, Vol 19, No 4, pp 518-523.
  • Armstrong, S.J. & Hird, A. (2009). Cognitive style and entrepreneurial drive of new and mature business owner managers. Journal of Business and Psychology, Vol 24, No 4, pp419-430.
  • Armstrong, S. & Sadler-Smith, E. (2008). Learning on demand, at your own pace, in rapid bite-sized-chunks: The future shape of management development? Academy of Management Learning and Education Journal, Vol 7, No 4.
  • Armstrong, S.J. & Mahmud, A. (2008). Experiential Learning and the Acquisition of Managerial Tacit Knowledge. Academy of Management Learning and Education Journal, Vol 7, No 2, pp189-208.
  • Armstrong, S.J. & Wilkinson, A. (2007). Processes, Procedures and Journal Development: Past, present and future (editorial). International Journal of Management Reviews, V7, No3, pp81-93.
  • Armstrong, S.J. (2005). Postgraduate Management Education in the UK: Lessons from or Lessons for the US Model? Academy of Management Learning and Education Journal, V4, No 2, pp 229-235.
  • Armstrong, S.J. & Wilkinson, A. (2005). International Journal of Management Reviews: History, purpose and mission (editorial). International Journal of Management Reviews, V7, No3, pp131-133.
  • Priola, V., Smith, J. & Armstrong, S.J. (2004). Group-work and cognitive style: A discursive investigation. Small Group Research, Vol 35, No 5, 2004, pp565-595.
  • Armstrong, S.J., Allinson, C.W., & Hayes, J. (2004). The effects of cognitive style on research supervision: a study of student-supervisor dyads in management education.Academy of Management Learning and Education Journal, Vol 3, No 1, 2004, pp41-63.
  • Armstrong, S.J.(2004). The impact of supervisors' cognitive styles on the quality of research supervision in management education. British Journal of Educational Psychology, Vol 74, No 4, pp599-616.
  • Hayes, J., Allinson, C.W., & Armstrong, S.J. (2004). Intuition, Women Managers and Gendered Stereotypes. Personnel Review, Vol 33, No 3, pp403-417.
  • Mahmud, A., Armstrong, S.J., & Zhu, Z. (2004). The influence of learning styles on knowledge acquisition in public sector management. Educational Psychology,Vol 24 (4), pp549-571.
  • Armstrong, S.J., Allinson, C.W., & Hayes, J. (2002). Formal mentoring systems: An examination of the effects of mentor-protege cognitive styles on the mentoring process. Journal of Management Studies, Vol 39, (8), pp1111-1137.
  • Armstrong, S.J., & Priola, V. (2001). Individual differences in cognitive style and their effects on task and social orientations of self-managed work-teams. Small Group Research, Vol 32, (3), pp283-312.
  • Allinson, C.W., Armstrong, S.J., Hayes, J. (2001). The effects of cognitive style on leader-member exchange: a study of manager-subordinate dyads. Journal of Occupational and Organisational Psychology, Vol 74, (2), pp201-220.
  • Armstrong, S.J. (2000). The influence of individual cognitive style on performance in management education. Educational Psychology, Vol 20, No. 3., 2000, pp323-340.
  • Armstrong, S.J., Allinson, C.W., & Hayes, J. (1997). The implications of cognitive style for the management of student-supervisor relationships. Educational Psychology, Vol 17, No's 1 & 2, pp209-218.


  • Wilkinson, A.J., Armstrong, S.J. & Loundsbury, M. (2017) Handbook of Management. Oxford University Press: Oxford.
  • Armstrong, S.J. & Fukami, C. (2009) Handbook of Management Learning, Education and Development. Sage: London
  • Brown, S., Armstrong, S.J. & Thompson, G. (1998). Motivating Students, Kogan Page: London. [ISBN: 0 7494 2492 X]
  • Armstrong. S.J., Brown, S. & Thompson, G. (1997). Facing up to Radical Changes in Universities and Colleges, Kogan Page: London 186pp. [ISBN: 0 7494 2129 0]

Book Chapters

  • Armstrong, S.J., van der Heijden, B.I.J.M., & Sadler-Smith, E. (2012). Intellectual styles, management of careers, and improved work performance. In L. Zhang, R. Sternberg, & S.G. Rayner’s (Eds.) Handbook of Intellectual Styles: Preferences in Cognition, Learning and Thinking. Springer: New York, NY.
  • Armstrong, S.J., & Fukami, C. (2011). Linking Management Research and Management Education: Syntheses and Challenges. In K. Cassel & W.Lee Challenges and Controversies in Management Research. Routledge: London.
  • Armstrong, S.J., & Fukami, C. (2009). Past, Present and Future Perspectives of Management Learning, Education and Development. In S.J. Armstrong & C. Fukami (Eds.) Handbook of Management Learning, Education & Development. Sage: London. Pp 1-22.
  • Armstrong, S.J., & Cools, E. (2009). Cognitive style and its relevance for management practice and organizational behaviour: A review of developments over the past two decades and recommendations for future research. In L. Zhang & R. Sternberg’s Perspectives on the Nature of Intellectual Styles. Springer: New York, NY. Pp253-290.
  • Fukami, C. V., & Armstrong, S.J. (2009). The Scholarship of Management Education and Development: Past, present and future perspectives. In C. Wankel & R. DeFillippi (Eds.) Being and Becoming a Management Education Scholar. Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing Inc.
  • Armstrong, S.J., Thursfield, D., Landri, P. & Ponzini, G. (2008). Challenges of Educating European Managers of Lifelong Learning. In C. Wankel & R. DeFillippi (Eds.) University and Corporate Innovations in Lifelong Learning, Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing Inc.
  • Armstrong, S.J. (2007) Re-thinking Management Education: From cognition, to action, to learning. Research Memorandum 75, The Business School, University of Hull, Hull, UK.
  • Weir, D., Mahfod, J. & Armstrong, S.J. (2007). Management Training and Development in the Context of Human Resource Management in Libya. In K. B. S. Kumar (Ed.) Training and Development: Country Experiences, pp 21-51. Hyderabad, India: The Icfai University Press. [ISBN: 81-314-0788-8]
  • Armstrong, S.J. (2006). Cognitive styles and learning styles: Origins and implications for teaching, learning and research in cross cultural contexts. In S. H. Ong, G. Apfelthaler, K. Hansen, N. Tapachai (Eds.), Intercultural Communication Competencies in Higher Education and Management, 2006, pp vi-xviii. Singapore: Marshall Cavendish Academic. [ISBN: 981-210-461-5]
  • Armstrong, S.J., & Priola, V. (2003). An examination of how differences in cognitive style affect the functioning of self-managing work-teams. In J. Hill, et al (Eds) Learning and Cognitive Styles: Conceptions and uses in teaching and learning, 2003, [ISBN-1873757 73]. Sunderland: Sunderland University Press.
  • Armstrong, S.J. & Rayner, S.G. (2002). Inquiry and style: Research verities and the development of a consensual theory? In Valk, M., Gombier, D., Armstrong, S., Francis, A., Graff, M., Hill, J., Rayner, S., Sadler-Smith, E., Spicer, D., & Smith, W.C. (Eds), Reliability and Validity: Book of proceedings of the 7th Annual Conference of the European Learning Styles Information Network, Ghent University Press, Ghent, 2002, 480pp. [ISBN: 9038204 116]
  • Armstrong, S.J. (1997). Research supervision: managing the student experience. In S.J.Armstrong, G.Thompson & S.Brown (Eds.), Facing up to radical changes in Universities and colleges, 1997, pp 108-119. London: Kogan Page.
  • Armstrong, S.J. (1999). The Impact of Cognitive Differences on the Supervision Process. In M.Tarras (Ed.) Teaching and Learning: variety in theory and practice, 1999, pp 29-44. Sunderland: Sunderland University Press.
  • Brown, S., Armstrong, S.J., & Thompson, G. (1998). The art of motivating students in Higher Education? In S.Brown, S.J.Armstrong, G.Thompson, (Eds.), Motivating Students, 1998, pp 1-7. London: Kogan Page.
  • Armstrong, S.J. (2000). Individual differences in cognitive style and their potential effects on organisational behaviour. In R. Riding & R. Rayner (Eds.), International Perspectives on Individual Differences: New developments in learning/cognitive style , pp 215-238. London: JAI Press.


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