Footnote Referencing

There are several different types of footnote referencing (Oxford, Chicago etc) and every university has its own guide that differs slightly in terms of punctuation, formatting and the order of information. This guide attempts to give definitive examples of how to reference different materials using footnote referencing here at the University of Hull.

If you prefer, a pdf version of this information can be downloaded here:

Footnote Referencing.pdf

Quick Reference Guide (Common Reference Types)

This is the standardised referencing system to be used by all departments, faculties and schools at the University of Hull who ask their students to use a footnotes referencing system (with the exception of Law who use the standard OSCOLA system). Use these guidelines when referencing manually. We also recommend that all students learn how to use bibliographic software (EndNote or Refworks) over the course of their studies to make their referencing more efficient.

Please see our Bibliographic Software pages for more information.

Basic rules of Footnote referencing

When using footnote referencing, information from another source is indicated in the text by using a superscript number after the relevant text.1 This should come after the relevant punctuation mark (usually the full stop but it could be a comma, colon or semi-colon if you are referring to several sources within a single sentence). At the bottom of the page, the number is repeated with the reference given. This is usually achieved in Microsoft Word by using the 'Insert Footnote' option on the References tab. If you use this function the numbers will be automatically generated and updated. Other word processors will have equivalent functions.

The amount of information that you give in the footnote is dictated by whether it is the first time you have referred to a source or not (see below).

A full bibliography is then given at the end of the document with the references in alphabetical order by surname.

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1 This is an example of a footnote.

Give a full reference (called a full footnote in this guide). Author names should be Initial(s). Surname (i.e. J. P. Smith) and are not reversed (i.e. Smith, J. P.). Many footnote systems suggest full names should be given rather than initials, however the University of Hull has decided to use initials only as many academic journals do not give full names and this would lead to inconsistency within the system. Page numbers indicating where you found the information you are referring to should be given at the end of the reference. If you want to point to a specific page in a book chapter or journal article reference, you should add a colon after the page range to do this.

Examples of a book and a journal article for single authors are given below.

N. Rogers, The press gang: naval impressment and its opponents in Georgian Britain (London: Continuum, 2007), 45-47.

K. N. Panikkar, ‘Literature as history of social change’. Social Scientist, 40, 3 (2012) 3-15:4.

Use ibid if the source is the same as the previous citation on the same page, otherwise use the short footnote form (No 4 below). There is no rule as to how short this should be, other than to make sure it is recognisable as a specific reference.

1 N. Rogers, The press gang: naval impressment and its opponents in Georgian Britain (London: Continuum, 2007), 45-60.
2 ibid
3 K. N. Panikkar, ‘Literature as history of social change’, Social Scientist, 40, 3 (2012) 3-15:4.
4 Rogers, The press gang, 55.

In the bibliography, references are entered in alphabetical order with the surname first (for more than one author, only the first surname is reversed).

  • Use single line spacing with hanging indents.
  • Multiple entries by the same author should use a long dash (em dash) for all but the first entry (these can be inserted using Ctrl+Alt+- on your numeric keypad).
  • Publishing information is not given in brackets.
  • Page numbers are not needed for full books (just journal articles or book chapters/sections).

Isserman, M. & M. Kazin, America divided: the civil war of the 1960s, 3rd edition. New York: Oxford University Press, 2008.

Reynal-Querol, M., Religious conflict and growth: theory and evidence. PhD thesis. London School of Economics and Political Science, 2007.

— 'Ethnicity, political systems and civil war', Journal of Conflict Resolution, 46, 29–54.

Where no date is known, use the abbreviation n.d.

You can also use n.p. for no publisher and n.l. for no location. Check with your department to see if these are necessary or whether you can just omit the information completely.

Many official documents and web pages do not give the actual author of the text, but publish as an organisation. If this is the case, just use the organisation name (BBC, UN Security Council etc) in place of the author initials and name.

Where the author name is not known (for instance for some reference books) and a corporate author is not clear, use the title of the work (or web page) in your footnote (if this is long you can use a shortened form):

Concise Oxford Dictionary (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011).

Gourmet coffee boom (2013). Available online: http://www.8975.co.uk/gourmet-coffee/ [Accessed 2/1/2014].

Do not use the abbreviation Anon.

If possible, you should include page numbers to point to the specific page or pages where the information you are referencing can be found. This is to help your reader locate your source material more easily. Occasionally you will be referring to a source as a whole in which case page numbers are not necessary. The page numbers should come at the end of the reference:

Full footnote:

D. Daiches et al., The Penguin companion to literature (London: Allen Lane, 1971), 58.

Short footnote:

Daiches et al., The Penguin companion to literature, 67.

With journal articles or chapters in books, where you have already given a page range, a colon separates this from the relevant page(s):

E. G. Guba, & Y. S. Lincoln, 'Paradigmatic controversies, contradictions and emerging confluences', in N. K. Denzin & Y. S. Lincoln (eds.), The landscape of qualitative research, 3rd edition. (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2008), 255-286:263.

G. Badley, 'The pragmatic university: a feasible utopia?', Studies in Higher Education (2014), 1-11:3-4.

Page numbers are not given in bibliography entries - only those indicating journal article and book chapter page ranges.

Sometimes you want to reference something that has been quoted, reproduced or cited in a source you have read (a secondary reference). Here are a few simple rules when dealing with them:

  • If at all possible, find the original source and use that instead.
  • Never pretend you have read the original source.
  • Only include the book/article you have read in the reference list.
  • Always make it clear in your in text or footnote that it is a secondary reference. Here are some examples:

Harrison implied that...2

Footnote: Harrison quoted in Smithson, J. Common Ancestors (New York: NP Publishing, 2008).

Alternatively, Harrison, quoted/cited in Smithson,2 suggested that .....

The Smithson book would be referenced in the footnote and bibliography.

Referencing templates and examples

You will find below information about how to reference nearly all possible types of material. Examples are given for full footnotes, short footnotes and bibliography entries. If there is anything missing, please contact us on Skills@hull.ac.uk and we will advise you personally and then add the information to this page.

Books (print and electronic)

Full footnote:

Initial(s). Surname of author, Title of book in sentence case and italics:* subtitle if present (City published: Publisher, Year), relevant page(s).

K. Robinson, Out of our minds: learning to be creative (Chichester: Capstone Publishing Ltd. 2001), 63-64.

Short footnote:

Surname, Shortened form of book title, relevant page(s)

Robinson, Out of our minds, 63-64.

Bibliography entry:

Surname, Initial(s). Title of book in sentence case and italics: subtitle if present. City published: Publisher, Year.

Robinson, K., Out of our minds: learning to be creative. Chichester: Capstone Publishing Ltd. 2001.

*Sentence case means you only capitalise the first word and any proper nouns.

Full Footnote:

Initial(s). Surnames of authors, Title of book in sentence case: subtitle if present (City published: Publisher, Year), relevant page(s).

For two authors use an ampersand (&) between them:

C. K. Bleser & L. J. Gordon, Intimate strategies of the Civil War: military commanders and their wives (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006), 34.

For more than two authors, list only the first, followed by et al. (not italicised):

D. Daiches et al., The Penguin companion to literature (London: Allen Lane, 1971), 58.

Short footnote:

Bleser & Gordon, Intimate strategies, 88-89.

Daiches et al., The Penguin companion to literature, 67.

Bibliography entry:

List all the authors with the first one reversed. Don't bracket publishing information.

Bleser, C. K. & L. J. Gordon, Intimate strategies of the Civil War: military commanders and their wives. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006.

Daiches, D., A. Thorlby, E. Mottram, M. Bradbury, J. Franco, D. R. Dudley, & D. M. Lang, The Penguin companion to literature. London: Allen Lane, 2006.

Put the edition number after the book title (after a comma) in the full footnotes and bibliography entry. Use the full word 'edition' not an abbreviation (to distinguish it from the abbreviation for editor):

Full footnote:

Initial(s). Surname of author(s), Title of book in sentence case: subtitle if present, No edition (City published: Publisher, Year), relevant page(s).

P. J. Lynch & S. Horton, Web style guide, 3rd edition (London: Yale University Press, 2008), 78-79.

Short footnote:

Lynch & Horton, Web style guide, 89-91.

Bibliography entry:

Lynch, P. J. & S. Horton, Web style guide, 3rd edition. London: Yale University Press, 2008.

As for an authored book with the addition of (ed.) or (eds.) after editor name(s) in full footnotes and bibliography entries.

Full footnote:

Initial(s). Surname of editor(s) (ed(s).), Title of book in sentence case: subtitle if present (City published: Publisher, Year), relevant page(s).

P. Hacket (ed.), The Andy Warhol diaries (London: Penguin Classics, 2010), 66.

A. Bradley & A. DuBois (eds.), The anthology of rap (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2010), 42-43.

Short footnote:

Hacket, The Andy Warhol diaries, 66.

Bradley & DuBois, The anthology of rap, 42-43.

Bibliography entry:

Hacket, P. (ed.), The Andy Warhol diaries. London: Penguin Classics, 2010.

Bradley, A. & A. DuBois (eds.), The anthology of rap. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2010.

The name of the book, not the chapter needs to be in italics. The chapter title should be in single inverted commas. If the chapter date is different to the book publication date (e.g. for collected articles) put the book date after (ed.), before the book title. If all the page range is relevant, you can omit a specific page reference.

Full footnote:

Initial(s). Surname of author(s), 'Title of chapter', In Editor(s) (ed(s).) Title of book. (City published: Publisher, Year). Page range of chapter:relevant page(s).

P. D. Richardson, ‘The British Empire and the Atlantic Slave Trade, 1660-1807’, in W. R. Louis (ed.), The Oxford History of the British Empire: Volume II: The Eighteenth Century (Oxford: OUP, 1999), 448-456:449.

Short footnote:

Richardson, ‘British Empire’, 449.

Bibliography entry:

Richardson, P. D., ‘The British Empire and the Atlantic Slave Trade, 1660-1807’, in W. R. Louis (ed.), The Oxford History of the British Empire: Volume II: The Eighteenth Century, 448-456. Oxford: OUP, 1999.

There is no need to give information about which provider you accessed the eBook through. It is sufficient to indicate that it is an eBook that you have read by putting [eBook] in square brackets after the book title or edition information. If no place of publication information is available, don't worry, just put the publisher. URLs are not required as these are usually session specific and would not link the reader to the eBook:

Full footnote:

Initial(s). Surname of author(s), Title of book [eBook] (City published (if available): Publisher, Year), relevant page(s).

J. L. Stein & P. R. Allen, Fundamental determinants of exchange rates [eBook] (New York: Oxford University Press, 1998), 22.

H. Parnell, The principles of currency and exchange, 4th edition [eBook] (London: J. Budd, 1805), 14-15.

Short footnote:

Stein & R. Allen, Fundamental determinants, 22.

Parnell, The principles of currency, 14-15.

Bibliography entry:

Stein, J. L. & P. R. Allen, Fundamental determinants of exchange rates [eBook]. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998.

Parnell, H., The principles of currency and exchange, 4th edition [eBook]. London: J. Budd, 1805.

As with other eBooks, it is sufficient to make it clear which version of the book you have read. This information is placed after the book title or edition information. You should include download dates if possible (versions are updated and this should be reflected). Download dates are usually the same as your purchase dates and can be found by looking back at your order history online. If you no longer have access to this information, don't worry, just give what information you have. City or publisher information is often unavailable and can be omitted if this is the case (although can often be found at the end of your eReader book).

Note: Early eReader books may have location rather than page information. You can use 'loc' to indicate this if necessary.

Full footnote:

Initial(s). Surname of author(s), Title of book, eReader version (City published: Publisher, Year), relevant page(s) or location [Downloaded date].

D. Stevenson, Story theater method: strategic storytelling in business, Kindle version (Colorado Springs: Cornelia Press, 2003), loc 211. [Downloaded 2011].

R. Sheldrake et al., Chaos, creativity and cosmic consciousness, Kobo version (Inner Traditions/Bear & Company, 2001), 45. [Downloaded 4/8/2014].

Short footnote:

Stevenson, Story theater method, loc 211.

Sheldrake et al., Chaos, creativity, 45.

Bibliography entry:

Stevenson, D. Story theater method: strategic storytelling in business, Kindle version. Colorado Springs: Cornelia Press, 2003. [Downloaded 2011].

Sheldrake, R., T. McKenna & R. Abraham, Chaos, creativity and cosmic conciousness, Kobo version. Inner Traditions/Bear & Company, 2001. [Downloaded 4/8/2014].

You should include details for the translator and an indication of the original language. If the original was a historically significant book, include the date of the original as well as the translation.

Full footnote:

Initial(s). Surname of author(s), Title of book. Translated from language by name of translator, date if needed (City published: Publisher, Year), relevant page(s).

C. Wolf, One day a year, 1960-2000. Translated from German by L. A. Bangerter (New York: Europa Editions, 2007), 65.

J. P. Sartre, Existentialism and humanism (1946). Translated from French by P. Mairet (London: Metheun, 2007), 44-45.

Short footnote:

Wolf, One day a year, 65.

Sartre, Existentialism and humanism, 44-45.

Bibliography entry:

Wolf, C., One day a year, 1960-2000. Translated from German by L. A. Bangerter. New York: Europa Editions, 2007.

Sartre, J. P., Existentialism and humanism (1946). Translated from French by P. Mairet. London: Metheun, 2007.

When referring to material from audiobooks, a time stamp would be needed rather than page information.

Audio books on CD:
Full footnote:

Initial(s). Surname of author(s), Title of book, [Audio CD] Version (abridged or unabridged) (City published: Publisher, Year), Time stamp.

B. C. Tracy, Time management made simple, [Audio CD] Unabridged (New York: Gildan Media Corporation, 2012), 22-26 min.

Short footnote:

Tracy, Time management, 22-26 min.

Bibliography entry:

Tracy, B. C.,Time management made simple, [Audio CD] Unabridged. New York: Gildan Media Corporation, 2012.

Audio books via download:

The main difference here is that you need to include a download date as versions change. Publishing cities are often not given.

Full footnote:

Initial(s). Surname of author(s), Title of book, [Audio download]. Version (abridged or unabridged) (Publisher, Year), Time stamp. [Downloaded date].

B. C. Tracy, Time management made simple, [Audio download] Unabridged (Gildan Media Corporation, 2012), 22-26 min. [Downloaded 6/8/2014].

Short footnote:

Tracy, Time management, 22-26 min.

Bibliography entry:

Tracy, B. C.,Time management made simple, [Audio download] Unabridged. Gildan Media Corporation, 2012. [Downloaded 6/8/2014].

Articles (journal, newspaper and magazine)

Print journals and online versions of printed journals should be referenced in the same way. There is no need to state that a journal was accessed online or through which database (unless it is an online-only journal in which case see below).

Many journals articles are written by multiple authors. For two authors, separate initials and surnames with an ampersand (&). For more than two authors, give the first name followed by et al. in the footnotes but give all names in the bibliography entry.

If you are referring to a whole article, the article page range is sufficient; if you want to point to a specific page or page range, include this after a colon.

Full footnote:

Initial(s). Surname of author(s), 'Title of article in sentence case',* Journal title in italics, Issue information** (Year), page range: specific page(s) if necessary.

K. N. Panikkar, ‘Literature as history of social change’. Social Scientist, 40, 3 (2012), 3-5.

K. Alderson, ‘Making sense of state socialization’. Review of International Studies, 27, 3 (2001), 414-433:420.

Short footnote:

Panikkar, ‘Literature as history’, 6.

Alderson, ‘Making sense of state socialization’, 420.

Bibliography entry:

The only difference in the reversal of name and initials at the beginning of the entry and omission of specific page numbers:

Panikkar, K. N., ‘Literature as history of social change’. Social Scientist, 40, 3 (2012), 3-5.

Alderson, K. ‘Making sense of state socialization’. Review of International Studies, 27, 3 (2001), 414-433.

*Sentence case means you only capitalise the first word and any proper nouns.

**Issue information is usually volume and issue but can sometimes be volume only or include supplement information. Occasionally it is a season (Spring, Summer etc), month or date (do not repeat the year if this is the case).

Give the following information, note that page numbers are not often used:

Full footnote:

Initial(s). Surname of Author(s)(s), 'Title of article', Journal title in italics, Issue information (Year). Available online: URL for the article [Accessed date], relevant page(s).

H. Bowstead, 'Coming to writing', Journal of Learning Development in Higher Education, 3 (2011), 3. Available online: http://www.aldinhe.ac.uk/ojs/index.php?journal=jldhe&page=article&op=view&path%5B%5D=128&path%5B%5D=88 [Accessed 8/8/2014].

Short footnote:

Bowstead, 'Coming to writing', 3.

Bibliography entry:

Bowstead, H., 'Coming to writing', Journal of Learning Development in Higher Education, 3 (2011). Available online: http://www.aldinhe.ac.uk/ojs/index.php?journal=jldhe&page=article&op=view&path%5B%5D=128&path%5B%5D=88 [Accessed 8/8/2014].

As with journals, it is not necessary to give the online information if you are referring to a printed article, or one that only came out in print originally:

Full footnote:

Initial(s). Surname of the author if known or newspaper title if not, 'Title of the article or column heading', Title of the newspaper (Place of publication if known). Date in full, Page number.

J. Gunn, 'Why London will have to go international', The Times (London). 28 November 1984, 17.

Cardiff Times, 'Clydach Vale Disaster', Cardiff Times. 14 May 1910, 10.

Short footnote:

Gunn, 'Why London will have to go international', 17.

Cardiff Times, 'Clydach Vale Disaster', 10.

Bibliography entry:

Gunn, J., 'Why London will have to go international', The Times. London, 28 November 1984, 17.

Cardiff Times, 'Clydach Vale Disaster', Cardiff Times. 14 May 1910, 10.

Internet editions of newspaper articles are often slightly different to the printed articles (information may be added or excluded). It is therefore important to make it clear that you have accessed the internet edition:

Full footnote:

Initial(s). and surname of the author if known or newspaper title if not, 'Title of the article', Title of the newspaper, Internet edition. Date in full. Available at: URL [Accessed date].

N. Karim, 'Giant penguin fossil shows bird was taller than most humans', The Guardian, Internet edition. 4 August 2014. Available online: http://www.theguardian.com/science/2014/aug/04/giant-penguin-fossil-antarctica [Accessed 5/8/2014].

Short footnote:

Karim, 'Giant penguin fossil'.

Bibliography entry:

Karim, N., 'Giant penguin fossil shows bird was taller than most humans', The Guardian, Internet edition. 4 August 2014. Available online: http://www.theguardian.com/science/2014/aug/04/giant-penguin-fossil-antarctica [Accessed 5/8/2014].

These are similar to printed newspaper or journal articles:

Magazines:
Full footnote:

Initial(s). Surname of author(s) if known or magazine title if not, 'Title of the article or comic strip', Title of the Magazine/Comic. Issue and/or date, relevant page(s).

L. Evans & D. Winkler, 'Equador: into the fungal jungle', Fungi. 4, 4 Fall 2011, 10-12.

M. Tanner, 'Maria Callas: Prima Donna', BBC Music Magazine. September 2014, 27-31.

Short footnote:

Evans & Winkler, 'Equador: into the fungal jungle'.

Tanner, 'Maria Callas'.

Bibliography entry:

Evans, L. & D. Winkler, 'Equador: into the fungal jungle', Fungi. 4, 4 Fall 2011, 10-12.

Tanner, M., 'Maria Callas: Prima Donna', BBC Music Magazine. September 2014, 27-31.

Comics:
Full footnote:

Initial(s). Surname of author(s) if known or comic title if not, 'Title of the article or comic strip', Title of the Magazine/Comic. Issue and/or date, page number if relevant.

Beano, 'Minnie the Minx', The Beano. No 3000, 15 January 2000, 2.

C. Cooper, 'T'Priell Revealed Pt 2', Star Trek, Starfleet Academy. February 1998.

Short footnote:

Beano, 'Minnie the Minx', 2.

Cooper, 'T'Priell Revealed'.

Bibliography entry:

Beano, 'Minnie the Minx', The Beano. No 3000, 15 January 2000, 2.

Cooper, C., 'T'Priell Revealed Pt 2', Star Trek, Starfleet Academy. February 1998.

Official Governmental and NGO documents

The way we reference Acts changed in 1963. Before that, the year of reign of the monarch (regnal year) needs to be included:

Prior to 1963
Full footnote:

Name of Act including year (short title with key words capitalised). Regnal year, Chapter Number (City published: Publisher).

Friendly Societies Act 1955. 4 Elizabeth II, Chapter 19 (London: HMSO).

Since 1963
Full footnote:

Name of Act including year (short title with key words capitalised). Chapter Number (City published: Publisher).

Criminal Justice Act 2003. Chapter 44 (Norwich: The Stationery Office).

If you wish to refer to a particular section (known as a schedule) or paragraph you can add that extra information to your footnote:

Criminal Justice Act 2003. Chapter 44 (Norwich: The Stationery Office), s35(122).

Short footnotes (for both time periods):

Criminal Justice Act 2003, s35(122).

Bibliography entries:

Remove the brackets from around the publisher information.

Friendly Societies Act 1955. 4 Elizabeth II, Chapter 19. London: HMSO.

Criminal Justice Act 2003. Chapter 44. Norwich: The Stationery Office.

Full footnote:

Title with key words capitalised (including bracketed information if present) (SI Year and Number) (City published: Publisher).

The Criminal Justice (Sentencing) (Licence Conditions) Order 2003 (SI 2003/3337) (London: The Stationery Office Ltd).

The Openness of Local Government Bodies Regulations 2014 (SI 2014/2095) (London: The Stationery Office Ltd).

Short footnote:

Criminal Justice Order 2003.

Bibliography entry:

Remove the brackets from around the publishing information.

The Criminal Justice (Sentencing)(Licence Conditions) Order 2003 (SI 2003/3337). London: The Stationery Office Ltd.

Legal citation takes a particular format and should be used for both full footnote and bibliography entries:

Names of the parties involved (these could be letters if anonymised). Year of reporting - in square brackets or round brackets* Volume number Abbreviation of the law report series, First page of reference.

Callery v Gray (No 2) [2001] 4 All ER, 1.

F v Leeds City Council [1994] 2 FCR, 428.

Brown v Board of Education (1954) 347 U.S., 483.

In the example above All ER = All England Law Reports, FCR = Family Court Reports and U.S. = United States Reports.

Note Short footnotes should just use the names i.e. Callery v Gray. Dates can be included if needed to distinguish cases only.

*Square brackets are used when the date is the primary method for finding the case (in the examples above there are more than one volume 4 and 2 in those report series). Round brackets are used when the date is not necessary to find the case (there is only one volume 347 in the United States Reports).

You need to include the official number of the paper (usually found at the bottom left of the front cover):

Full footnote:

Initial(s). Surname of Author(s)ship, Title of document. Official number (City published: Publisher). Available online: URL [Accessed date].

The British Museum, Report and accounts for the year ended 31st March 2014. HC 436 (London: Williams Lea for HMSO).

HM Government, Open Data White Paper: Unleashing the potential. Cm 8353 (London: The Stationery Office Ltd). Available online: https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/78946/CM8353_acc.pdf [Accessed 2/9/2014].

Short footnote:

The British Museum, Report and accounts.

HM Government, Open Data White Paper.

Bibliography entry:

Remove the brackets from around the publishing information.

The British Museum, Report and accounts for the year ended 31st March 2014, HC 436. London: Williams Lea for HMSO.

HM Government, Open Data White Paper: Unleashing the potential, Cm 8353. London: The Stationery Office Ltd. Available online: https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/78946/CM8353_acc.pdf [Accessed 2/9/2014].

You need to include the identifying letters and numbers (which include the year), they come before the title:

Full footnote:

Standards Institution, Letters and numbers of standard: Full title of standard (City published: Publisher).

International Standards Office, ISO 50001:2011: Energy management systems: requirements with guidance for use (Geneva: ISO).

British Standards Institution, BS ISO 690:2010: Information and documentation. Guidelines for bibliographic references and citations to information resources (London: BSI).

Short footnote:

Abbreviations for institutions can be used, alongside the identifying number.

ISO, ISO 50001:2011.

BSI, BS ISO 690:2010.

Full footnote:

Remove the brackets from around the publisher information.

International Standards Office, ISO 50001:2011: Energy management systems: requirements with guidance for use. Geneva: ISO.

British Standards Institution, BS ISO 690:2010: Information and documentation. Guidelines for bibliographic references and citations to information resources. London: BSI.

If the patent is available online, show where and when you accessed it.

Full footnote:

Inventer Initials. Surname, Title of patent (Country granting patent, Patent number, Year). Available online: URL [Accessed date], relevant page(s).

E. Borgen, Wind turbine rotor with improved hub system (UK Patent GB2495084, 2013).

S. Karsten, Wind turbine tower and method of production thereof (US Patent US2014237919(A1), 2014). Available online: http://worldwide.espacenet.com/publicationDetails/biblio?FT=D&date=20140828&DB=EPODOC&locale=en_EP&CC=US&NR=2014237919A1&KC=A1&ND=5 [Accessed 28/8/2014].

Short footnote:

Borgen, Wind turbine rotor.

Karsten, Wind turbine tower.

Bibliography entry:

Reverse the first name and remove brackets around patent information.

Borgen, E., Wind turbine rotor with improved hub system. UK Patent GB2495084, 2013.

Karsten, S., Wind turbine tower and method of production thereof. US Patent US2014237919(A1), 2014. Available online: http://worldwide.espacenet.com/publicationDetails/biblio?FT=D&date=20140828&DB=EPODOC&locale=en_EP&CC=US&NR=2014237919A1&KC=A1&ND=5 [Accessed 28/8/2014].

Full footnote:

Name of institution - common abbreviations acceptable, Title of document. Official number (City published: Publisher (often the institution in full), Year), relevant page(s) if necessary.

CEC, Communication. Further guidance on allocation plans. COM(2005)703 final (Brussels: Commission of the European Communities, 2005), 3-4.

European Council, Special meeting of the European Council (16 July 2014). EUCO 147/14 (Brussels: European Council, 2014).

Short footnote:

CEC, Communication, 3-4.

European Council, Special meeting.

Bibliography entry:

Remove brackets from around publishing information.

CEC, Communication. Further guidance on allocation plans. COM(2005)703 final. Brussels: Commission of the European Communities, 2005.

European Council, Special meeting of the European Council (16 July 2014). EUCO 147/14. Brussels: European Council, 2014.

The United Nations produce both internal documents and external publications. These include resolutions, statements, reports etc. Titles could be long, sometimes (as for statements) the actual document does not say what they are about in their title but the initial link to them does. It is hard to produce a template that covers them all, but use the basic one below as guidance, adapting it as needed for the document in question.

Links to online versions may not be needed - check with your supervisor/lecturer.
Full footnote:

Name of institution/committee (common abbreviations acceptable), Title of document (Full date of document, Official number). Available online: URL [Accessed date].

UN General Assembly, Outcome document of the high-level meeting of the General Assembly on the comprehensive review and assessment of the progress achieved in the prevention and control of non-communicable diseases (10 July 2014, A/RES/68/300).

UN Security Council, Statement by the President of the Security Council on the Middle East (22 December 2010, S/PRST/2010/30). Available online: http://www.un.org/en/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=S/PRST/2010/30 [Accessed 22/8/2014].

UN Security Council, Security Council Press Statement on Terrorist Attack in Mali (18 August 2014, SC/11523, AFR/2951, PKO/426). Available online: http://www.un.org/News/Press/docs//2014/sc11523.doc.htm [Accessed 22/8/2014].

Short footnote:

UN Security Council, Statement by the President.

UN Security Council, Security Council Press Statement.

Bibliography entry:

As full footnote.

There are so many different non-governmental organisations that a fixed template is difficult to create. Adapt the one below as necessary, trying to keep the styling consistent:

Full footnote:

Name of organisation - common abbreviations acceptable, Title of document (Full date of document, Official number if given). (City or country published: Publisher). Available online: URL [Accessed date].

UNESCO, Teaching and learning: achieving quality for all; EFA global monitoring report, 2013-2014 (Paris: UNESCO Publishing). Available online: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0022/002256/225660e.pdf [Accessed 22/8/2014].

The World Bank, Brazil: Implementation Status and Results, Development Policies for the State of Sergipe (18 August 2014, P129652, Report No ISR15802). Available online: http://www-wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/LCR/2014/08/18/090224b082652070/1_0/Rendered/PDF/Brazil000Devel0Report000Sequence003.pdf [Accessed 22/8/2014].

Danish Refugee Council, Strategic Programme Document - DRC/DDG in Libya and Tunisia (4 September 2009). Available online: http://drc.dk/fileadmin/uploads/pdf/IA_PDF/North_Africa/2014.04.09_SPD_-_Libya_Tunisia_-_2014.pdf [Accessed 22/8/2014].

Short footnote:

UNESCO, Teaching and learning.

The World Bank, Brazil: Implementation Status.

Danish Refugee Council, Strategic Programme Document

Bibliography entry:

As full footnote but remove brackets around publisher information if present.

UNESCO, Teaching and learning: achieving quality for all; EFA global monitoring report, 2013-2014. Paris: UNESCO Publishing. Available online: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0022/002256/225660e.pdf [Accessed 22/8/2014].

Other documents

Conference papers are the individual papers presented at a conference, symposium or seminar. Conference proceedings are the collected papers of the whole conference, published together. Individual conference papers may be unpublished in which case omit the publishing information.

Conference paper:
Full footnote:

Initial(s). Surname of author(s), 'Title of paper in sentence case',* Title of conference: subtitle if present. Location and date of conference (City published: Publisher if given), page range:relevant page(s) if necessary.

W. Blozijl & B. Andeweg, 'The effects of text slide format and presentation quality on learning in college lectures', IEEE International Professional Communication Conference. Limerick, 10-13 July 2005, 288-299:291.

Short footnote:

Blozijl & Andeweg, 'The effects of text slide format', 288-299:291.

Bibliography entry:

Blozijl. W. & B. Andeweg, 'The effects of text slide format and presentation quality on learning in college lectures', IEEE International Professional Communication Conference. Limerick, 10-13 July 2005, 288-299.

Conference proceedings:
Full footnote:

Initial(s). Surname of author(s)/editor(s), 'Title of proceedings', Title of conference: subtitle if present. Location and date of conference (City published: Publisher if given).

Transportation Research Board, 'City logistics research: a transatlantic perspective', EU-US Transportation Symposium. Washington, D. C., 30-31 May 2013 (Washington: Transportation Research Board).

Short footnote:

Transportation Research Board, 'City logistics research'.

Bibliography entry:

As full footnote with brackets removed from publisher information.

Transportation Research Board, 'City logistics research: a transatlantic perspective', EU-US Transportation Symposium. Washington, D. C., 30-31 May 2013. Washington: Transportation Research Board.

Note that the publisher is often the same as the organisation:

Printed report
Full footnote:

Initial(s). Surname of author/Organisation, Full title of report (City published: Publisher, Year (if not in title)), relevant page(s).

BT Group plc, Annual report and Form 20-F 2014. (London: BT Group plc), 12.

Short footnote:

BT Group plc, Annual report 2014, 12.

Bibliography entry:

As full footnote with brackets removed from publisher information.

Online report
Full footnote:

Initial(s). Surname of author/Organisation, Full title of report (City published: Publisher (if given), Year (if not in title). Available online: URL [Accessed date], relevant page(s) if given.

NHS, Everyone counts: planning for patients 2013/14 (NHS Commissioning Board), 9. Available online: http://www.england.nhs.uk/wp-content/uploads/2012/12/everyonecounts-planning.pdf [Accessed 12/9/2014], 16-17.

Short footnote:

NHS, Everyone counts, 9.

Bibliography entry:

As full footnote with brackets removed from publisher information.

NHS, Everyone counts: planning for patients 2013/14. NHS Commissioning Board. Available online: http://www.england.nhs.uk/wp-content/uploads/2012/12/everyonecounts-planning.pdf [Accessed 15/9/2014].

Government/NGO Reports

These are slightly different - see section above.

Give the following information ('Available online' is optional as older thesis are only available in print).

Full footnote:

Initial(s). Surname of author, Title of dissertation/thesis. Document type (Name of University, date on document). Available online: URL [Accessed date], relevant page(s).

B. H. Stern, The impact of leadership on school improvement. EdD thesis (The University of Hull. August 2013). Available online: https://hydra.hull.ac.uk/resources/hull:8431 [Accessed 21/8/2014], 234.

R. J. Walsh, Charles the Bold, last Valois Duke of Burgundy 1467-1477 and Italy. PhD thesis (The University of Hull, 1977), 45.

Short footnote:

Stern, The impact of leadership, 234.

Walsh, Charles the Bold, 45.

Bibliography entry:

Walsh, R. J. Charles the Bold, last Valois Duke of Burgundy 1467-1477 and Italy. PhD thesis. The University of Hull, 1977.

When referencing texts such as the Bible, Qur'an or Torah, include the following information and give Book. Sura or Chapter:verse instead of page numbers:

Full footnote:

Title of the version you have used. Translated by name of translater (if given) (City published: Publisher, Year), relevant section(s)

The Holy Bible: Authorised King James Version. (Glasgow: Harper Collins, 2011), Philippians. 4:13.

The Qur'an (Oxford World's Classics). Translated by M. A. S. Abdel Haleem (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004), Miriam. 19:25.

The Torah: the five books of Moses. Translated by J. P. S. Greenberg & M. Greenberg (Philadelphia: The Jewish Publication Society, 2000), Leviticus. 19:1-2.

Short footnote:

Give the name of the text only with relevant section:

The Torah, Genesis. 1:26.

Bibliography entry:

Remove brackets from publishing information

The Torah: the five books of Moses. Translated by J. P. S. Greenberg & M. Greenberg. Philadelphia: The Jewish Publication Society, 2000.

PDF document are nearly always accessed online, and so you can point readers to the URL along with other information. If the URL is unavailable (for instance if you have been emailed it) or if you have no publisher information, just give as much information as you have or can find.

Full footnote:

Initial(s). Surname of author(s), Title of document (City published: Publisher, Year). Available online: URL [Accessed date], relevant page(s) if necessary.

S. Godin, Stop stealing dreams: what is school for? (Do You Zoom, Inc, 2012). Available online: http://www.sethgodin.com/sg/docs/stopstealingdreamsscreen.pdf [Accessed 6/8/14], 3-4.

H. M. Government, The coalition: our programme for government (London: Cabinet Office, 2010). Available online: https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/78977/
coalition_programme_for_government.pdf
[Accessed 6/8/14].

Short footnote:

Godin, Stop stealing dreams, 6.

H. M. Government, The coalition.

Bibliography entry:

Godin, S., Stop stealing dreams: what is school for?. Do You Zoom, Inc, 2012. Available online: http://www.sethgodin.com/sg/docs/stopstealingdreamsscreen.pdf [Accessed 6/8/14].

H. M. Government, The coalition: our programme for government. London: Cabinet Office, 2010. Available online: https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/78977/
coalition_programme_for_government.pdf
[Accessed 6/8/14].

For leaflets, handouts, flyers etc just provide what information you can:

Full footnote:

Initial(s). Surname of author/organisation, Title of document [Media] (Other useful details).

University of Hull, Learning, Teaching and Student Experience Strategy 2012-15 [Booklet] (University of Hull, 2012).

The Deep, The Deep: for conservation not profit [Leaflet] (2014).

Short footnote:

University of Hull, Learning, Teaching.

The Deep, The Deep: for conservation.

Bibliography entry:

Don't bracket the details.

University of Hull, Learning, Teaching and Student Experience Strategy 2012-15 [Booklet]. University of Hull, 2012.

The Deep, The Deep: for conservation not profit [Leaflet]. 2014.

Archive material is often unique: books could be annotated etc which means that the collection that they came from is equally as important as the document details. They will often not have page numbers, but where there are, include the relevant page(s).

Initial(s). Surname of author/organisation, Title of document, Edition (publisher information if relevant, Year) [Medium]. Whatever collection details are available (i.e. name of collection, reference numbers, name of library/archive, location).

P. A. Larkin, Workbook No 1 (1950) [Manuscript]. Papers of Philip Arthur Larkin, U DPL/1/1, Hull University Archives, Hull History Centre.

R. Smyth & H. E. L. Thuilier, A manual of surveying for India: detailing the mode of operations on trigonametrical, topographical and revenue surveys of India, 2nd Edition (London: W. Thacker and Co., 1855) [Book]. Monograph, mg NO2/24Z3, Royal Geographical Society/Institute of British Geographers Archive, London, 44.

W. Wilberforce, Letter to James Thomson Esq (1816) [Letter]. William Wilberforce letters, L DFWW/1/10, Hull Local Studies Library, Hull History Centre.

Online sources (see also Audiovisual etc below)

First, please note that a website URL is NEVER a suitable reference on its own. Sometimes the author (even an organisation) is not clear. If that is the case, use the webpage title (and a short form of this as your short footnote). Dates can often be found in copyright information at the bottom of the page. If a range is given, use the later year.

Full footnote:

Initial(s). Surname of author(s), Title of web page in sentence case (Date).* Available online: URL [Accessed date].

Individual Author(s)

G. Reynolds, Top ten slide tips (2005). Available online: http://www.garrreynolds.com/preso-tips/design/ [Accessed 27/08/2014].

Company author

SocialBakers, LinkedIn statistics, number of LinkedIn users & demographics (2014). Available online: http://www.socialbakers.com/linkedin-statistics/ [Accessed 26/3/2014].

No author or company name

Gourmet coffee boom takes Russia by storm (2013). Available online: http://www.8975.co.uk/gourmet-coffee/ [Accessed 2/1/2014].

Short footnote:

Reynolds, Top ten slide tips.

SocialBakers, LinkedIn statistics.

Gourmet coffee boom.

Bibliography entry:

As full footnote but put the author surname first and don't put dates in brackets.

*Sentence case means you only capitalise the first word and any proper nouns.

Blogs are often unsubstantiated opinions and should be used with caution as academic references. However, some reputable, published authors have their own blogs which can provide useful, up to date comments and insights. Include the following information:

Initial(s). Surname of author, 'Title of blog post', Title of website. Date of post. Available online: URL [Accessed date].

S. Godin, 'Trading favors', Seth's Blog. 31 July 2014. Available online: http://sethgodin.typepad.com/seths_blog/2014/07/trading-favors.html [Accessed 8/8/2014].

G. Reynolds, 'Story structure, simplicity, & hacking away at the unessential', Presentation Zen. 13 June 2014. Available online: http://www.presentationzen.com/presentationzen/2014/06/one-key-to-story-design-is-to-hack-away-at-the-unessential.html [Accessed 6/8/2014].

Short footnote:

Godin, 'Trading favors'.

Reynolds, 'Story structure'.

Bibliography entry:

As full footnote but with author surname first.

Quite often you are referring to an answer rather than a question in a forum, however, it is the question that you reference in this case. Always check the expertise of the answerer and use with caution and criticality. Author names are usually aliases, type them as they appear.

Full footnote:

Initial(s). Surname of author, 'Title of post' (often a question), Title of Forum. Date of post. Available online: URL [Accessed date].

jlawler, 'Can the term "homorganic" be applied to vowels and glides?', Linguistics Stack Exchange. 8 August 2014. Available online: http://linguistics.stackexchange.com/questions/8764/can-the-term-homorganic-be-applied-to-vowels-and-glides [Accessed 8/8/2014].

Short footnote:

jlawler, 'Can the term'.

Bibliography entry:

As full footnote.

When referencing a YouTube video, it is the name of the person who posted the video, not who made it that you reference (these can be the same or different). Use the URL that you get when you click the 'Share' link as it is shorter than the one in the URL box:

Full footnote:

Name of person posting video, Title of video, Series title if relevant. Date uploaded [Video]. Available online: URL [Accessed Date].

M. E. Tunalioglu, Richard Phillips Feynman - The Last Journey of a Genius. 23 April 2011 [Video]. Available online: http://youtu.be/Mn4_40hAAr0 [Accessed 8/8/2014].

Harvard University, Episode 02: Putting a price tag on life, Justice: What's the right thing to do? 8 September 2009 [Video]. Available online: http://youtu.be/0O2Rq4HJBxw [Accessed 9/8/2012].

Short footnote:

Tunalioglu, Richard Phillips Feynman.

Harvard University, Putting a price tag on life.

Bibliography entry:

As full footnote.

For other social media, adapt whichever of the following is most appropriate.

Facebook

If your reader needs to register (and be accepted) to see the entries you are referring to, and you are not quoting them in full within your text, it is wise to include a copy of the actual text as an appendix to your work.

Full footnote:

Initial(s). Surname of author, Title of Page (could just be author's timeline) [Facebook]. Date posted. Available online: URL [Accessed date].

G. Reynolds, Garr Reynolds Timeline [Facebook]. 10 August 2014. Available online: https://www.facebook.com/garr.reynolds?fref=nf [Accessed 13/8/2014].

L. Fallin, Skills Team at Hull [Facebook]. 24 March 2014. Available online: https://www.facebook.com/SkillsTeam [Accessed 13/8/2014].

Short footnote:

Reynolds, Garr Reynolds Timeline.

Fallin, Skills Team at Hull.

Bibliography entry:

As full footnote but with surname first.

Twitter
Full footnote:

Initial(s). Surname of author, Full text of tweet (as written) [Twitter]. Date posted. Available online: URL [Accessed date].

N. Glass, wondering just how far this moment is from dreams I've had. it all feels vaguely familiar yet completely foreign. resisting tears. so tired [Twitter]. 30 March 2009. Available online: https://twitter.com/noah/status/1422661056 [Accessed 13/8/2014].

Short footnote:

Glass, wondering just how far.

Bibliography entry:

As full footnote but with surname first.

If your reader needs to subscribe to see the entries you are referring to, and you are not quoting them in full within your text, it is wise to include a copy of the actual text as an appendix to your work. In this case, add 'see appendix n' in your footnote.

Full footnote:

Initial(s). Surname of author, 'Subject line', Title of mailing list. Date of message. Available online: URL [Accessed date].

C. Keenan, 'Peer led academic learning and disability', Learning Development in Higher Education Network. 8 August 2014. Available online: ldhen@jiscmail.ac.uk [Accessed 13/8/2014].

Short footnote:

Keenan, 'Peer led academic learning'.

Bibliography entry:

As full footnote but with surname first.

Images, artwork and maps

You should reference every photograph you use unless you took it yourself. Give the following information:

Online photographs
Full footnote:

Photographer, (Initial(s). Surname if available, username if not), Title of photograph in italics (or description if none available). Date taken/uploaded if given [Photograph]. Available online: URL [Accessed date].

keithhull, Hull is the new UK City of Culture for 2017. 21 April 2009 [Photograph]. Available online: https://www.flickr.com/photos/21506908@N07/3478651395 [Accessed 14/8/2014].

P. Harrop, Plinth and Maritime Museum, Hull. 2012 [Photograph]. Available online: http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/2843877 [Accessed 14/8/2014].

Short footnote:

keithhull, Hull is the new UK City of Culture.

P. Harrop, Plinth and Maritime Museum.

Bibliography entry:

As full footnote.

Prints, slides or negatives (in known collections)
Full footnote:

Photographer, Title of photograph in italics. Date taken if not in title [Photograph]. Whatever collection details are available (i.e. name of collection, reference numbers, location, name of library/archive).

P. A. Larkin, Negative of [Monica Jones] on a ferry. 1970s [Photograph]. Photographs of Philip Arthur Larkin, U DLV/2/1/30, Hull University Archives, Hull History Centre.

R. T. Watson, Hull City Football Team 1906-7 taken at Anlaby Road Hull the City football ground [Photograph]. Records of the Copyright Office, Stationers' Company, Copy 1/506/148, The National Archives, Kew.

Short footnote:

Larkin, Negative of [Monica Jones].

Watson, Hull City Football Team.

Bibliography entry:

As full footnote.

Prints, slides or negatives (not in collections)
Full footnote:

Photographer, Title of photograph (or description if none available). Date taken if known [Photograph] (Place of publication: publisher (if available)).

J. A. Bartram, Bluebells in North Cliffe Woods. May 2012 [Photograph] (York).

Short footnote:

Bartram, Bluebells.

Bibliography entry:

Bartram, J. A. Bluebells in North Cliffe Woods. May 2012 [Photograph] York.

If the illustration/figure/table is created by the author (basically not attributed to anyone else) then just cite the book as normal, giving the appropriate page number. If the image is attributed to someone else, the footnote would include both the person responsible for the image and the author(s) of the book. The bibliography entry would list the book, not the specific illustration.

Full footnote:

M. E. Turgot & L. Bretez, 'Plan de Paris'. In E. R. Tufte, Envisioning information (Cheshire CT: Graphics Press, 1990), 36.

Short footnote:

Turgot & Bretez, 'Plan de Paris', 36.

Bibliography entry:

Tufte, E. R., Envisioning information. Cheshire CT: Graphics Press, 1990.

Give as much as the following information as you can find (online information optional):

Full footnote:

Initial(s). Surname of artist, 'Title of cartoon' [Cartoon], Title of publication, Date published. Available online: URL [Accessed date].

M. Rawson, 'Wealth inequality' [Cartoon], The Guardian, 29 July 2014. Available online: http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/cartoon/2014/jul/29/martin-rowson-rich-wealth-good-inequality-cuts [Accessed 14/8/2014].

Short footnote:

Rawson, 'Wealth inequality'.

Bibliography entry:

As full footnote but with name reversed (Rawson, M.,).

Give as much of the following information as you can find. If available online, add Available online: URL [Accessed date]:

Full footnote:

Initial(s). Surname of artist, Title of work. Year created if known [Medium]. Institution/collection, City (or Location, Exhibition, dates of exhibition).

T. Denison, Clippers on the Humber [Original Watercolour]. Myton Gallery, Hull.

B. Cook, Tommy Dancing. 2008 [Oil]. Hull Maritime Museum, Working Hard, Playing Hard, 5 April - 8 June 2014.

B. Gold, Alien. 1979 [Poster]. Available online: http://www.complex.com/pop-culture/2013/05/most-iconic-movie-posters-of-all-time/alien [Accessed 15/8/2012].

Short footnote:

Denison, Clippers on the Humber.

Cook, B. Tommy Dancing.

Gold, B. Alien.

Bibliography entry:

As full footnote.

Include as much of the following information as you can find:

Full footnote:

Initial(s). Surname of artist, Title of the work. Year created if different from year seen [Medium]. Name of collection/exhibition information or Location (include date seen for temporary installations).

H. S. Moore, Large Totem Head. 1968 [Bronze Sculpture]. Yorkshire Sculpture Park.

S. Producoes, Colourful Canopies of Umbrellas [Installation]. Agueda, Portugal, July 2013.

Short footnote:

Moore, Large Totem Head.

Producoes, Colourful Canopies of Umbrellas.

Bibliography entry:

As full footnote but with names reversed (Moore, H. S.,).

Ordnance Survey map
Full footnote:

Ordnance Survey, Title of map. Edition if not first. Map/sheet number, Scale. Map series if appropriate (Place of publication: Publisher, Year).

Ordnance Survey, Kingston Upon Hull. Ed C2. 107, 1:50 000. Landranger series (Southampton: Ordnance Survey, 2006).

Short footnote:

Ordnance Survey, Kingston Upon Hull.

Bibliography entry:

As full footnote.

Other map

Map producer, Title of map, Edition if not first. Map/sheet number, Scale (Place of publication: Publisher, Year).

International Travel Maps, South America, 5th edition. ITM.875, 1:4 000 000 (Richmond, BC: ITMB Publishing, 2008).

M. D. Max, C. B. Long & C. V. MacDermot, Bedrock Geology of North Mayo, Sheet 6, 1:100,000 (Dublin: Geological Survey of Ireland, 1992).

Short footnote:

International Travel Maps, South America.

Max et al., Bedrock Geology.

Bibliography entry:

.

International Travel Maps, South America, 5th edition. ITM.875, 1:4 000 000. Richmond, BC: ITMB Publishing, 2008.

Max, M. D., C. B. Long & C. V. MacDermot, Bedrock Geology of North Mayo, Sheet 6, 1:100,000. Dublin: Geological Survey of Ireland, 1992.

Atlas

Reference as a standard book, giving scales if relevant. For a specific page, include the page number at the end of the footnotes only.

R. Butler, Atlas of Kenya (Nairobi: Survey of Kenya, 1959).

L. Bossard, Regional atlas on West Africa [eBook] (Paris: OECD Publishing, 2009).

Short footnote:

Butler, Atlas of Kenya.

Bossard, Regional atlas on West Africa.

Bibliography entry:

International Travel Maps, South America, 5th edition. ITM.875, 1:4 000 000. Richmond, BC: ITMB Publishing, 2008.

Max, M. D., C. B. Long, & C. V. MacDermot, Bedrock Geology of North Mayo, Sheet 6, 1:100,000. Dublin: Geological Survey of Ireland, 1992.

These guidelines are for maps that are viewed, annotated or printed

Digimap does have a citation generator, but this provides a citation that is not consistent with the rest of our scheme so we do not recommend you use it (although it can sometimes be useful to confirm information).

Digimaps are generated by you, so you will have to give a description of the map that makes it clear what it is showing as its title. Other information can be found by clicking on Map Information on the left of your screen or for some services, clicking the Sheet Information button (i) and then clicking on the map. The publisher is usually the copyright holder (check the bottom of the map). The citation year should be from the map date, if no map date is available, use the copyright date.

Full footnote:

Map publisher, Title/description of map. Scale. Source (Map Product), Year of original map. Created online: http://edina.ac.uk/digimap [Created on date].

Ordnance Survey, Kingston upon Hull. 1:100 000. EDINA Digimap (OS Strategi), 2014. Created online: http://edina.ac.uk/digimap [Created 18/8/2014].

Landmark Information Group, Barmby Moor, East Yorkshire. 1:2 500. National Grid Tile SE7748, EDINA Historic Digimap Service, 1971. Created online: http://edina.ac.uk/digimap [Created 18/8/2014].

Natural Environment Research Council, Vale of Pickering. 1:50 000. EDINA Geology Digimap Service (British Geological Survey), 2014. Created online: http://edina.ac.uk/digimap [Created 18/8/2014].

Short footnote:

Ordnance Survey, Kingston upon Hull.

Landmark Information Group, Barmby Moor.

Natural Environment Research Council, Vale of Pickering.

Bibliography entry:

As full footnote.

When you create a map that you include in your assignment, you only need to reference the data source and the tool you used (it is your own work after all). You can find a lot of the information that you need for referencing when you view your basket. You would give the figure a name (Figure 1 - title) and add your footnote after the title. Subsequent citations would refer to Figure 1 and not the data directly so short footnotes are not needed.

Full footnote:

Created with (insert software), data from Producer [data format] Scale, Tile(s). Product name, version: date. Available online: http://edina.ac.uk/digimap [Downloaded date].

Created with ArcGis, data from Ordnance Survey [DWG geospacial data] 1:50 000, Tiles SE7954, SE7955, SE8054, SE8055. OS MasterMap, version: December 2013. Available online: http://edina.ac.uk/digimap [Downloaded 21/8/2014].

Created with TerraView, data from British Geological Survey [Shapefile geospacial data] 1:50 000, Tile TA41. Onshore Geology, version: 2013. Available online: http://edina.ac.uk/digimap [Downloaded 21/8/2014].

Short footnote:

Not applicable, see above.

Bibliography entry:

You do not need the 'created with' information.

Ordnance Survey [DWG geospacial data] 1:50 000, Tiles SE7954, SE7955, SE8054, SE8055. OS MasterMap, version: December 2013. Available online: http://edina.ac.uk/digimap [Downloaded 21/8/2014].

British Geological Survey [Shapefile geospacial data] 1:50 000, Tile TA41. Onshore Geology, version: 2013. Available online: http://edina.ac.uk/digimap [Downloaded 21/8/2014].

URLs can be found for specific map views by clicking the Share button in each case. In Bing maps the URL is shown, in Google maps you will need to right-click on the Google Maps link (if you have searched, the link may be your search term) and and choose to copy the link address.

Full footnote:

Map provider, Description of map, View information. Available online: URL [Accessed 21/8/2014].

Google Maps, Humber Dock Marina, Satellite view. Available online: https://www.google.co.uk/maps/@53.73926,-0.3387019,622m/data=!3m1!1e3 [Accessed 22/8/2014].

Bing Maps, The University of Hull campus, Bird's eye view. Available online: http://binged.it/1tkVlri [Accessed 22/8/2014].

Short footnote:

Google Maps, Humber Dock Marina.

Bing Maps, The University of Hull campus.

Bibliography entry:

As full footnote.

Audiovisual sources

Many referencing systems suggest that you need to include a place of distribution. However, this is rarely available on DVDs etc so we suggest you just put the distributor/studio which can usually be found on the reverse. If a place is available, include it before a colon as with publisher information.

Film
Full footnote:

Title in italics. Directed by Director name [Medium] (Studio/Distributer, Year of release).

Good Morning, Vietnam. Directed by Barry Levinson [DVD] (Walt Disney Studios Home Entertainment, 1998).

Good Will Hunting. Directed by Gus Van Sant [Blu-ray] (Lions Gate Home Entertainment, 2011).

Short footnote:

Good Morning, Vietnam.

Good Will Hunting.

Bibliography entry:

Remove brackets from distribution information.

Good Morning, Vietnam. Directed by Barry Levinson [DVD]. Walt Disney Studios Home Entertainment, 1998.

Good Will Hunting. Directed by Gus Van Sant [Blu-ray]. Lions Gate Home Entertainment, 2011.

TV programme
Full footnote:

Title, directed by Director name. Written by Writer name (if known) [Medium] (Distributer, Year of distribution).

In the Wild: Dolphins with Robin Williams. Directed by Nigel Cole [VHS] (NTV, 1998).

Short footnote:

In the Wild.

Bibliography entry:

Remove brackets from distribution information.

In the Wild: Dolphins with Robin Williams. Directed by Nigel Cole [VHS]. NTV, 1998.

Episode of a TV programme
Full footnote:

'Episode title', Programme title, series and episode numbers. Directed by Director name. Written by Writer name (if known) [Medium] (Place of distribution: Distributer, Year of distribution).

'Old Fears', Mork & Mindy, season 2, episode 12. Directed by Howard Storm. Written by April Kelly [DVD] (Los Angeles: Paramount, 1979).

Short footnote:

'Old Fears', Mork & Mindy.

Bibliography entry:

Remove brackets from distribution information.

'Episode title', Programme title, series and episode numbers. Directed by Director name. Written by Writer name (if known) [Medium]. Place of distribution: Distributer, Year of distribution.

Extra commentaries

If extra commentaries by directors/producers/actors etc are given on a DVD/Blu-ray you would reference using the person's name rather than the title:

Commentator, director's (or other) commentary, Title of Film. Version if needed. Directed by Director name [Medium] (Studio/Distributer, Year).

Z. Snyder, director's commentary, Watchmen, Director's Cut, Special Edition. Directed by Zach Snyder [Blu-ray] (Warner Bros., 2009).

T. McCarthy, J. Powers, & D. Thompson, critics' commentary, The Ultimate Matrix Collection. Directed by the Wachowski Brothers [DVD collection] (Warner Bros., 2004).

Short footnote:

Snyder, Watchmen.

McCarthy et al., The Ultimate Matrix Collection.

Bibliography entry:

Snyder, Z., director's commentary, Watchmen, Director's Cut, Special Edition. Directed by Zach Snyder [Blu-ray]. Warner Bros., 2009.

McCarthy, T., J. Powers, & D. Thompson, critics' commentary, The Ultimate Matrix Collection. Directed by the Wachowski Brothers [DVD collection]. Warner Bros., 2004.

Dates given in brackets should be the original broadcast year (the copyright year given at the end of the programme). You may be able to find this and information such as writers etc on something like IMDb if you do not have the credits recorded. The broadcast date is the broadcast that you actually watched (except for online subscription-only programmes, in which case it is the release date).

TV programme
Full footnote:

Title. Directed by Director name (if known). Written by Writer name (if known) [TV Programme] (TV channel (or service if online only), broadcast date and time).

Scotland decides: Salmond versus Darling [TV Programme] (BBC TWO, 25 August 2014, 20:30).

Short footnote:

Scotland decides.

Bibliography entry:

No brackets around broadcast information:

Scotland decides: Salmond versus Darling [TV Programme]. BBC TWO, 25 August 2014, 20:30.

If you are quoting a specific person on the programme, you can include their name first:

Full footnote:

Salmond, A. Scotland decides: Salmond versus Darling [TV Programme] (BBC TWO, 25 August 2014, 20:30).

Episode of a TV programme
Full footnote:

'Episode title', Programme title, series and episode numbers. Directed by Director name. Written by Writer name (if known) [TV programme] (TV channel (or service if online only). Broadcast date and time).

'The Empty Chair', The Honourable Woman, season 1, episode 1. Directed by Hugo Blick. Written by Hugo Blick [TV programme] (BBC TWO. 3 July 2014, 21:00).

'Chapter 2', House of Cards, season 1, episode 2. Directed by David Fincher. Written by Beau Willimon [TV Programme] (Netflix, 1 February 2014).

Short footnote:

'The Empty Chair', The Honourable Woman.

'Chapter 2', House of Cards.

Bibliography entry:

No brackets around broadcast information.

Programmes/episodes watched via Box of Broadcasts

Please DO NOT cite these using the information given in the How to cite this tab underneath the broadcast window. Instead, just add the URL and access information as with other online resources:

Full footnote:

Scotland decides: Salmond versus Darling [TV Programme] (BBC TWO, 25 August 2014, 20:30). Available online: http://bobnational.net/record/236557 [Accessed 30/8/2014].

Short footnote:

Scotland decides.

Bibliography entry:

No brackets around broadcast information.

Radio programme

This is the same as for TV programmes but use [Radio Programme] instead:

Full footnote:

In Tune [Radio Programme] (BBC Radio 3, 18 August 2014, 16:30).

'Skomer', Afternoon Play. Written by Mike Akers [Radio Programme] (BBC Radio 4, 30 October 2006, 14:15). Available online: http://bobnational.net/record/215 [Accessed 18/8/2014].

If you are quoting a specific person on the programme, you can include their name first:

Full footnote:

Rafferty, S. In Tune [Radio Programme] (BBC Radio 3, 18 August 2014, 16:30).

Film, cinema release or TV
Full footnote:

Title in italics. Directed by Director name [Film] (Place of distribution (if known): Studio/Distributer, Year of release).

Dawn of the Planet of the Apes. Directed by Matt Reeves [Film] (20th Century Fox, 2014).

Short footnote:

Dawn of the Planet of the Apes.

Bibliography entry:

Remove brackets from distribution information.

Dawn of the Planet of the Apes. Directed by Matt Reeves [Film]. 20th Century Fox, 2014.

Film, seen on Box of Broadcasts

Please DO NOT cite these using the information given in the How to cite this tab underneath the broadcast window. Instead, just add the URL and access information as with other online resources. If distributer information is cut off the end by the TV channel, try looking on IMDb (Company Credits link):

Full footnote:

Title in italics. Directed by Director name [Film] (Place of distribution (if known): Studio/Distributer, Year of release). Available online: http://bobnational.net/record/234816 [Accessed date].

The Birds. Directed by Alfred Hitchcock [Film] (Universal Pictures, 1963). Available online: http://bobnational.net/record/234816 [Accessed 15/9/2014].

Short footnote:

The Birds.

Bibliography entry:

Remove brackets from distribution information.

The Birds. Directed by Alfred Hitchcock [Film]. Universal Pictures, 1963. Available online: http://bobnational.net/record/234816 [Accessed 15/9/2014].

If the author or presenter of the podcast is not known, use the organisation or website name instead.

Full footnote:

Initial(s). Surname of author/presenter, 'Title of podcast', Name of Web page [Podcast]. Day and month of post if shown. Available online: URL [Accessed date].

T. Harford, 'Student loans', More or Less: Behind the Stats [Podcast]. 15 August 2014. Available online: http://downloads.bbc.co.uk/podcasts/radio4/moreorless/moreorless_20140815-1655c.mp3 [Accessed 19/8/2014].

J. Heaversedge, 'What is mindfulness?', Mental Health Foundation [Podcast]. Available online: http://www.mentalhealth.org.uk/content/assets/audio/what-is-mindfulness-mp3.mp3 [Accessed 19/8/2014].

Fearless Social, 'How to use magazines to write better Facebook ads', Fearless Social: Social Marketing Evolved [Podcast]. 7 August 2014. Available online: https://itunes.apple.com/gb/podcast/fearless-social-social-marketing/id904864342?mt=2 [Accessed 19/8/2014].

Short footnote:

Harford, 'Student loans'.

Heaversedge, 'What is mindfulness?'.

Fearless Social, 'How to use magazines'.

Bibliography entry:

As full footnote with surname of author/presenter first.

When referencing a YouTube video, it is the name of the person who posted the video, not who made it that you reference (these can be the same or different). Use the URL that you get when you click the 'Share' link as it is shorter than the one in the URL box:

Full footnote:

Name of person posting video, Title of video, Series title if relevant. Date uploaded [Video]. Available online: URL [Accessed Date].

M. E. Tunalioglu, Richard Phillips Feynman - The Last Journey of a Genius. 23 April 2011 [Video]. Available online: http://youtu.be/Mn4_40hAAr0 [Accessed 8/8/2014].

Harvard University (2009) Episode 02: Putting a price tag on life, Justice: What's the right thing to do? 8 September 2009 [Video]. Available online: http://youtu.be/0O2Rq4HJBxw [Accessed 9/8/2012].

Short footnote:

Tunalioglu, Richard Phillips Feynman.

Harvard University, Putting a price tag on life.

Bibliography entry:

As full footnote.

Most presentations you will reference will be accessed online, so reference as follows:

Full footnote:

Initial(s). Surname of author(s), Title of presentation. Date created/uploaded [Presentation]. Available online: URL [Accessed date].

J. Brenman, Thirst. 8 July 2008 [Presentation]. Available online: http://www.slideshare.net/jbrenman/thirst [Accessed 29/8/2014].

N. Duarte, Slidedocs: spread ideas with effective visual documents. 2014 [Presentation]. Available online: http://www.duarte.com/slidedocs/ [Accessed 29/8/2014].

If you accessed the presentations via other means, omit the 'Available online' information.

Short footnote:

Brenman, Thirst.

Duarte, Slidedocs.

Bibliography entry:

As full footnote with surname of author first.

Music

Print score
Full footnote:

Initial(s). Surname of composer, Title of score including work number if known [Musical score]. Editor or arranger information (City published: Publisher, Year of publication).

I. Stravinsky, Rite of spring: pictures from pagan Russia in two parts [Musical score] (London: Boosey & Hawkes, 1967).

N. Rimsky-Korsakoff, Trombone Concerto [Musical score]. Reduction for tenor trombone and piano by Harold Perry (London: Boosey & Hawkes, 1955).

Short footnote:

Stravinsky, Rite of spring.

Rimsky-Korsakoff, Trombone Concerto.

Bibliography entry:

Stravinsky, I., Rite of spring: pictures from pagan Russia in two parts [Musical score]. London: Boosey & Hawkes, 1967.

Rimsky-Korsakoff, N., Trombone Concerto [Musical score]. Reduction for tenor trombone and piano by Harold Perry. London: Boosey & Hawkes, 1955.

Online score
Full footnote:

Initial(s). Surname of composer, Title of score including work number if known [Musical score]. Editor or arranger information (City published: Publisher (if given), Year published or uploaded). Available online: URL [Accessed date].

J. S. Bach, Canon for Walther, BWV 1073 [Musical score]. Edited by Alfred Dorffel (Leipzig: Breitkopf & Hartel, 2008). Available online: http://imslp.org/wiki/Special:ImagefromIndex/188975 [Accessed 20/8/2014].

M. C. Raboud-Theurillat, Saisons, op 40 [Musical score]. (2005). Available online: http://www.free-scores.com/PDFSUP_EN/raboud-theurillat-marie-christine-saisons-saisons-flute-67951.pdf [Accessed 20/8/2014].

Short footnote:

Bach, Canon for Walther.

Raboud-Theurillat, Saisons.

Bibliography entry:

Bach, J. S., Canon for Walther, BWV 1073 [Musical score]. Edited by Alfred Dorffel. Leipzig: Breitkopf & Hartel, 2008. Available online: http://imslp.org/wiki/Special:ImagefromIndex/188975 [Accessed 20/8/2014].

Raboud-Theurillat, M. C., Saisons, op 40 [Musical score]. 2005. Available online: http://www.free-scores.com/PDFSUP_EN/raboud-theurillat-marie-christine-saisons-saisons-flute-67951.pdf [Accessed 20/8/2014].

Part of collected works
Full footnote:

Initial(s). Surname of composer, 'Title of score', Title of collection [Musical score] (City published: Publisher, Year). Available online: URL [Accessed date] (if relevant).

B. Britten, 'How sweet the answer (The Wren)', Folksong Arrangements, Vol 4 Moore's Irish Melodies [Musical score] (London: Boosey & Hawkes, 1960).

Short footnote:

Britten, 'How sweet the answer'.

Bibliography entry:

Britten, B., 'How sweet the answer (The Wren)', Folksong Arrangements, Vol 4 Moore's Irish Melodies [Musical score]. London: Boosey & Hawkes, 1960.

Part of anthologies
Full footnote:

Initial(s). Surname of composer, 'Title of score'. In Editor name (ed.) Title of anthology [Musical score] (City published: Publisher, Year). Available online: URL [Accessed date] (if relevant).

G. F. Handel, 'Deborah'. In M Spicker (ed.) Anthology of sacred song, Vol 1 (Soprano) [Musical score]. (New York: G. Shirmer, 1902). Available online: http://conquest.imslp.info/files/imglnks/usimg/e/e9/IMSLP38723-PMLP85325-VA_-_Anthology_of_Sacred_Songs._Vol1-soprano.pdf [Accessed 20/8/2014].

Short footnote:

Handel, 'Deborah'.

Bibliography entry:

Handel, G. F., 'Deborah'. In M. Spicker, (ed.) Anthology of sacred song, Vol 1 (Soprano) [Musical score]. New York: G. Shirmer, 1902. Available online: http://conquest.imslp.info/files/imglnks/usimg/e/e9/IMSLP38723-PMLP85325-VA_-_Anthology_of_Sacred_Songs._Vol1-soprano.pdf [Accessed 20/8/2014].

CD, audio cassette or vinyl
Full footnote:

Initial(s). Surname of composer, 'Title of work if part of album/larger work'. Title of Album/Work if whole. Performer/orchestra conducted by Conductor name (if relevant) [Medium] (City of distribution (if given): Distributor/Label, Year).

E. Elgar, Cello Concerto, Op 85, Enigma Variations. Philadelphia Orchestra, London Philharmonic Orchestra and Jacqueline Du Pré conducted by Daniel Barenboim [CD] (Sony Music Classical, 1995).

J. S. Bach, 'Variato 8. A 2 Clav'. Glenn Gould plays Bach, Goldberg Variationen [Vinyl] (Membran Media, 2012).

Short footnote:

Elgar, Cello Concerto.

Bach, 'Variato 8'.

Bibliography entry:

Elgar, E., Cello Concerto, Op 85, Enigma Variations. Philadelphia Orchestra, London Philharmonic Orchestra and Jacqueline Du Pré conducted by Daniel Barenboim [CD]. Sony Music Classical, 1995.

Bach, J. S., 'Variato 8. A 2 Clav'. Glenn Gould plays Bach, Goldberg Variationen [Vinyl]. Membran Media, 2012.

Streamed or downloaded

It is necessary to give specific information about where you streamed music from if it is ONLY available through that method. Otherwise, just give as much of the above information as your streaming service gives or you can find elsewhere (the same recording may be available on Amazon for instance). Downloaded music should always give a URL.

Full footnote:

C. Debussy, La Mer. Berliner Philharmoniker conducted by Simon Rattle [Streamed] (EMI Records Ltd, 2005).

J. Sibelius, Valse Triste. Erik Helling [Download]. Available online: http://pianosociety.com/cms/index.php?section=70 [Accessed 28/8/2014].

Short footnote:

Debussy, La Mer.

Sibelius, Valse Triste.

Bibliography entry:

Debussy, C.,La Mer. Berliner Philharmoniker conducted by Simon Rattle [Streamed]. EMI Records Ltd, 2005.

Sibelius, J., Valse Triste. Erik Helling [Download]. Available online: http://pianosociety.com/cms/index.php?section=70 [Accessed 28/8/2014].

Standard names of single artists can be treated liked any other name, with initials given and reversed in the bibliography. Band names are unchanged. Single artists with non-standard names (Lady Gaga, Jessie J, P Diddy etc) should be treated as band names:

Album
Full footnote:

Artist, Title of album [Media]. Version if needed (Label, Year).

M. Gaye, What's Going On [Vinyl] (Tamla Records, 1971).

Iron Maiden, Powerslave [Audio CD]. Enhanced, original recording remastered (EMI, 1998).

Short footnote:

Gaye, What's Going On.

Iron Maiden, Powerslave.

Bibliography entry:

Gaye, M., What's Going On [Vinyl]. Tamla Records, 1971.

Iron Maiden, Powerslave [Audio CD]. Enhanced, original recording remastered. EMI, 1998.

Album track
Full footnote:

Artist, 'Title of track', Title of album [Media]. Version if needed (Label, Year).

Blondie, 'Hanging on the telephone', Parallel Lines [Vinyl] (Chrysalis Records, 1978).

S. Smith, 'Like I can', In the Lonely Hour [Audio CD]. Deluxe Edition (Capitol Records, 2014).

Short footnote:

Blondie, 'Hanging on the telephone'.

Smith, 'Like I can'.

Bibliography entry:

Blondie, 'Hanging on the telephone', Parallel Lines [Vinyl]. Chrysalis Records, 1978.

Smith, S., 'Like I can', In the Lonely Hour [Audio CD]. Deluxe Edition. Capitol Records, 2014.

Streamed or downloaded

It is necessary to give specific information about where you streamed music from if it is ONLY available through that method. Otherwise, just give as much of the above information as your streaming service gives or you can find elsewhere (the same recording may be available on Amazon for instance). Downloaded music should always give a URL.

Full footnote:

M. Davis, Boplicity [Streamed]. Original recordings 1949-1953 (Naxos Rights International Ltd, 2004).

Macklemore & R. Lewis, 'Starting Over', Spotify Sessions [Streamed] (2013). Available online: https://play.spotify.com/album/3LwV3QIDQopbgERx5XJnBz [Accessed 28/8/2014].

Short footnote:

Davis, Boplicity.

Macklemore & Lewis, 'Starting Over'.

Bibliography entry:

Davis, M., Boplicity [Streamed]. Original recordings 1949-1953. Naxos Rights International Ltd, 2004.

Macklemore & R. Lewis, 'Starting Over', Spotify Sessions [Streamed]. 2013. Available online: https://play.spotify.com/album/3LwV3QIDQopbgERx5XJnBz [Accessed 28/8/2014].

Lyrics
Full footnote:

Songwriter(s), Title of Song [Lyrics] (Place of distribution: Distribution company or label, Year) or (Year). Available online: URL [Accessed date].

B. Taupin, Candle in the wind [Lyrics] (MCA Records, 1973).

B. Geldof & M. Ure, Do they know it's Christmas? [Lyrics] (1984). Available online: http://www.azlyrics.com/lyrics/bandaid20/dotheyknowitschristmas.html [Accessed 28/8/2014].

Short footnote:

Taupin, Candle in the wind.

Geldof & Ure, Do they know it's Christmas?

Bibliography entry:

Taupin, B. Candle in the wind [Lyrics]. MCA Records, 1973.

Geldof, B. & M. Ure, Do they know it's Christmas? [Lyrics]. 1984. Available online: http://www.azlyrics.com/lyrics/bandaid20/dotheyknowitschristmas.html [Accessed 28/8/2014].

Libretto

These are usually published separately so have publisher details:

Full footnote:

Initial(s). Surname of author(s) Title of publication [Libretto]. Edition or version if necessary. (City of publication: Publisher, Year).

S. Sondheim, & H. Wheeler, Sweeney Todd [Libretto] NHB Libretti, new edition (London: Nick Hern Books, 1991).

Short footnote:

Sondheim, & Wheeler, Sweeney Todd.

Bibliography entry:

Sondheim, S. & H. Wheeler, Sweeney Todd [Libretto]. NHB Libretti, new edition. London: Nick Hern Books, 1991.

Liner notes are text found on the covers or inner sleeves of vinyl albums or on the little booklets that come inside CDs etc. These can be physical or electronic (for instance if you download an album). Sometimes they do not have individual titles, in which case just leave this out but add the [Liner notes] label to the short footnote to make it clear what you are referencing.

Full footnote:

Initial(s). Surname of author, 'Title of notes' [Liner notes]. In Title of recording [Media] (Label, Year).

The Damned, 'Thanks to no-one' [Liner notes]. In Damned Damned Damned [Audio CD] (Stiff Records, 1977).

J. Cott, [Liner notes]. Stravinsky: Le Sacre du Printemps. Leonard Bernstein and the New York Philharmonic [Audio CD]. Sony Masterworks, 2013.

Short footnote:

The Damned, 'Thanks to no-one'.

Cott [Liner notes].

Bibliography entry:

The Damned, 'Thanks to no-one' [Liner notes]. In Damned Damned Damned [Audio CD]. Stiff Records, 1977.

Cott, J. [Liner notes]. Stravinsky: Le Sacre du Printemps. Leonard Bernstein and the New York Philharmonic [Audio CD]. Sony Masterworks, 2013.

Live performances

Full footnote:

Initial(s). Surname of composer, Title. Name of orchestra/musician conducted by Conductor (if relevant) (Place of performance, Date of performance).

R. Strauss, Elektra. BBC Singers and the BBC Symphony Orchestra conducted by Semyon Bychkov (Royal Albert Hall, 31 August 2014).

Short footnote:

Strauss, Elektra.

Bibliography entry:

Strauss, R., Elektra. BBC Singers and the BBC Symphony Orchestra conducted by Semyon Bychkov. Royal Albert Hall, 31 August 2014.

Full footnote:

Initial(s). Surname of composer or choreographer, Title. Dance company (Location, Date seen).

M. Bourne, Lord of the Flies. New Adventures Dance Company (Sadler's Wells, London, 8 October 2014).

Short footnote:

Bourne, Lord of the Flies.

Bibliography entry:

Bourne, M. Lord of the Flies. New Adventures Dance Company. Sadler's Wells, London, 8 October 2014.

In contrast to other live performances, the title of the play is given first, not the playwright.

Full footnote:

Title, by Author. Directed by Director (or Theatre Company) (Location, Date seen).

That's All You Need to Know, by Idle Motion (Hull Truck Theatre, 19 September 2014).

The Importance of Being Earnest, by Oscar Wilde. Directed by Lucy Bailey (Harold Pinter Theatre, 18 July 2014).

Short footnote:

That's All You Need to Know.

The Importance of Being Earnest.

Bibliography entry:

Remove brackets from performance information.

That's All You Need to Know, by Idle Motion. Hull Truck Theatre, 19 September 2014.

The Importance of Being Earnest, by Oscar Wilde. Directed by Lucy Bailey. Harold Pinter Theatre, 18 July 2014.

Personal communications etc

For emails from distribution lists, see electronic resources. Be careful about including personal email addresses and respect confidentiality. It is usually to keep copies and include them in appendices.

Full footnote:

Sender Name, Message subject line [Email]. Message sent to Recipient's name (email address if appropriate). Date and time sent.

R. Heseltine, Reflective writing [Email]. Message sent to J. Bartram (j.bartram@hull.ac.uk). 22 April 2014, 20:49.

Short footnote:

Heseltine, Reflective writing.

Bibliography entry:

As full footnote.

Recorded interviews/conversations(including focus groups)
Full footnote:

Initial(s). Surname of interviewee, Description of communication [Conversation type]. Date and time of interview. Place if relevant.

J. Harlow The relevance of employability to academic staff [Recorded conversation]. 27 December 2014, 12:50. University of Hull.

Participant B, Should we build a new library? [Focus group]. 9 May 2012, 14:15. University of Hull.

Short footnote:

Harlow, The relevance of employability.

Participant B,Should we build a new library?

Bibliography entry:

Harlow, J. The relevance of employability to academic staff [Recorded conversation]. 27 December 2014, 12:50. University of Hull.

Some supervisors could prefer you to provide a transcript as an appendix and cite the appendix and line number in your footnotes instead - check with them individually. If this is the case then the following would be used:

Full and short footnotes

Appendix No, Line No.

The bibliography entry would be the same as above.

Non-recorded interviews or conversations

Check with your tutor/supervisor to see if these are usable (they are not considered recoverable data and some academics will not accept them as evidence within your written work). If they are acceptable, give the same information as for recorded interviews/conversations.

Use a description of the letter's contents if it has no obvious title:

Full footnote:

Initial(s). Surname of author, Title/description of letter [Letter]. Personal communication or recipient information, Date on letter.

J. Smith, Request for help with proofreading [Letter]. Personal communication, 23 January 2013.

P. Brown, Workshop enquiry [Letter]. Sent to Skills Team, 23 January 2013.

Short footnote:

Smith, Request for help.

Brown, Workshop enquiry.

Bibliography entry:

Smith, J., Request for help with proofreading [Letter]. Personal communication, 23 January 2013.

Brown, P., Workshop enquiry [Letter]. Sent to Skills Team, 23 January 2013.

Always check with your tutor that they accept lecture notes or other course material in a reference list (many do not). It is always better to read the original sources of the material if available and reference these. Otherwise reference as follows:

Full footnote:

Lecturer, 'Title of lecture', Module title and code [Lecture] (Institution, Year, unpublished).

J. Bartram, 'Effective Presentations', Enhanced Information and Research Skills 05056 1314 [Lecture] (University of Hull, 2013, unpublished).

Short footnote:

Bartram, 'Effective Presentations'.

Bibliography entry:

Bartram, J. 'Effective Presentations', Enhanced Information and Research Skills 05056 1314 [Lecture]. University of Hull, 2013, unpublished.

See PowerPoint (or other) presentation above if you have access to the actual presentation used rather than relying on your own lecture notes (but still check that it is acceptable to reference this).

Anything else

If you need to reference anything that is not already included in this guide then follow the basic template below.

Full footnote:

Initial(s). Surname of author/creator, Title or description [Medium if not obvious]. Anything that identifies it specifically (Any other information about where or when you saw it or that can help someone else find it, including date).

Short footnote:

Surname of Author(s)/Creator(s), Title or description.

Bibliography entry:

Surname, Initial(s). of Author/Creator, Title or description [Medium if not obvious]. Anything that identifies it specifically. Any other information about where or when you saw it or that can help someone else find it, including date.

Version 1.0.16
This page was last updated 13/06/2016