Harvard Referencing

If you Google 'Harvard Referencing' you will find that every university has its own guide and that they all differ slightly in terms of punctuation, formatting and the order of information. 'Harvard Referencing' refers to any referencing style that uses the author name and year of publication within the text to indicate that information or ideas have been sourced from elsewhere. For this reason it is sometimes referred to as 'Author Date' referencing. This guide gives University of Hull students definitive examples of how to reference different materials using Harvard referencing for all their submitted work.

If you prefer, a pdf version of this information can be downloaded here:

Harvard Referencing.pdf

Quick Reference Guide (Common Reference Types)

This is the standardised referencing system to be used by all departments, faculties and schools at the University of Hull who ask their students to use the Harvard referencing system. Use these guidelines when referencing manually. We do, however, recommend that all students learn how to use bibliographic software (EndNote or Refworks). Please see our Bibliographic Software pages for more information.

Citing references within your text

When using a Harvard referencing style, the in-text citations need to indicate who was the author or producer of the work you are citing and what year it was published or created. If you have provided a direct quotation, you will also need to include the page number (see 'Direct quotations' and 'When to include page numbers' below). This information is given in parentheses (round brackets) as follows:

Author(s) mentioned directly in sentence:

When an author name is included within your text the name is followed by date of publication in brackets:

Robinson (2001) suggests that Western culture has an obsession with academic achievement and fails to recognise the worth of creative ability.

Author(s) not mentioned in sentence:

When the author name is not included in the text their surname and date of publication are added in brackets at the end of the associated point. The author and date need to be separated by a comma. If this is at the end of a sentence, make sure the citation is placed before the full stop:

Storytelling activates the brain’s insular cortex and allows us to experience sensations such as excitement or disgust (Widrich, 2012).

Please click on the appropriate section below for more rules you need to follow for in-text citations:

When two co-authors are mentioned within the text, separate them with the word 'and' rather than using an ampersand (&):

Alley and Neeley (2005) suggest that...

When two co-authors are given in the brackets at the end of the sentence their names are separated with an ampersand (&) unlike when the authors are referred to within the text.

All slides should use a full sentence to make an assertion in their title and give the evidence to back up that assertion in the main body of the slide. Where possible this evidence should be visual (Alley & Neeley, 2005).

When authors of different works are both referred to in a sentence, cite them separately:

Martin (2005) and Rothfuss (2011) both infer that...

If names are not included in the sentence, list citations in chronological order within brackets at the end, separated by semicolons:

(Smith, 2005; Rothfuss, 2013).

Where no specific author is given, use the name of the organisation or company. If the organisation is known by abbreviations always give the name in full the first time their work is cited:

The Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC) have published guidance on professional conduct for nursing and midwifery students (NMC, 2011).

For two authors, please see the Author name(s) included in text and Author name(s) not in text sections above as the rules are slightly different in each instance.

For more than two authors, in text citations only show the first author followed by et al. (which stands for 'and others' in Latin). This does not need to be italicised.

Brown et al. (2011) indicate that...

This has been confirmed by many different researchers (Brown et al., 2011; Green, 2012; White et al., 2012).

Where no date is known, use the abbreviation n.d.:

The amount of Brazilian Atlantic forest remaining is decreasing every year (SOS Mata Atlântica, n.d.).

For direct quotations, include the page number(s) after the date, following a colon. The abbreviation p or pg is not required:

According to Duarte (2010:53), “Incorporating story into presentations has an exponential effect on outcomes”.

Page numbers are not required when quoting from webpages.

If you have accessed an electronic book with no obvious page numbers (such as earlier Kindle books), location data can be given instead:

Stevensen (2011:loc 211) states that "a story is the best way to help employees 'grasp' an abstract concept”.

For more than one citation by the same author on the same information with different dates, list all the dates after the name separated by commas:

(Martin, 2011, 2014).

Note that you only use semicolons between lists of different authors.

For more than one citation by the same author in the same year put a, b, c etc after the date:

(Martin, 2011a)....(Martin, 2011b).

Note, in the reference list, works by the same author, published in the same year, should be in alphabetical order by title. It is this position in the reference list rather than the position in the document that determines which letter a citation is given. It is therefore possible that you could cite (Martin, 2011b) before (Martin, 2011a) in the document itself.

Where the author name is not known (for instance for some reference books) and a corporate author is not clear, use the title of the work (or web page) as your citation (if this is long you can use a shortened form):

(Concise Oxford Dictionary, 2004).

(Gourmet coffee boom, 2013).

Do not use the abbreviation Anon.

Be critical when using web pages as sources. Take extra care to assess the reliability and authority of the author or organisation and use accordingly. Never just give the URL as your in-text citation. Always follow the standard Harvard citation style of (Author, Year).

  • Authors are often companies and organisations: (NHS, 2004).
  • If no author or organisation is clear, give the web page title: (Gourmet coffee boom, 2013).
  • Dates are often found in the copyright information at the bottom of the web page.
  • If a date range is given, use the latest date.
  • If no date is given, use n.d.

Include the name of the religious text, Book. Sura or Chapter:Verse e.g.

"I can do all things through Christ who strengthens me" (The Bible, Philippians. 4:13).

"And shake toward you the trunk of the palm tree; it will drop upon you ripe, fresh dates" (The Qur'an, Miriam. 19:25).

For other religious texts, adapt to whatever is the conventional numbering system.

Plays and poems need more specific citations:

Play

When quoting directly from plays, you should give a concise reference number indicating Act, Scene and line number. For Shakespeare plays, give the play title rather than the author in the citation:

"One that loved not wisely but too well" (Othello, 3.2. 390).

If the play is not divided in such a way, just give page numbers as normal.

Long poems

When quoting from poems, give the line number(s) after the quotation, separate consecutive lines with a virgule (/):

"According to Ode to a Nightingale, “tender is the night, / And haply the Queen-Moon is on her throne, / Cluster’d around by all her starry Fays” (35-37).

Sometimes you want to reference something that has been quoted, reproduced or cited in a source you have read (a secondary reference). Here are a few simple rules when dealing with them:

  • If at all possible, find the original source and use that instead.
  • Never pretend you have read the original source.
  • Only include the book/article you have read in the reference list.
  • Always make it clear in your in text citation that it is a secondary reference. Here are some examples:

Harrison (2008) cited in Peters (2010) implied that...

Rebecca Bishop, a native American public relations officer (quoted in Sorensen, 2012) believes that...

In a letter to his brother, Rembrandt admitted his reluctance to accept money (Rembrandt, 1880 in Stone, 1995).

Figure 4: Aerial shot of the scene (Patel, 2003 in Justin, 2009).

For the above examples, the entries in the reference list would be for Peters, Sorenson, Stone and Justin (NOT Harrison, Bishop, Rembrandt or Patel).

Always use page numbers within your reference when you are quoting directly from your source:

According to Ryan (2004:267) music is the art that "touches, in one form or another, the widest segment of the world's population".

If there is a quite a gap between giving the reference and the quote, you can put the page number by itself in brackets directly after the quotation:

Work by Oliver (2011) found that mechanisms for assuring their development varied from non-existent through vague statements of “opportunities provided” (page 12) to a few well documented quality review processes.

Sometimes, especially when using books as sources, it can be helpful to give a page number even when you have paraphrased the text. This is not essential but it is a courtesy to the reader to help them find the part of the book that you are referring to more easily.

According to Gottshcall (2012:111) conspiracy theories are the result of a dark human need to make up stories where they do not exist.

Compiling the reference list

The reference list appears at the end of your document and is a full list of the works you have referred to within your written text. It should be in alphabetical order by surname (or citation entry if some names were not known). References should be typed using single line spacing with a clear space between each reference. Indentation in not necessary.

Some departments may ask for a full bibliography, which would also include any works that you have consulted in the process of writing the piece but have not referred to directly. However this is not usually the case so please check with them if you are unsure. Sometimes you can just add an "Additional material consulted" section after your reference list to avoid confusion.

You will find below information about how to reference nearly all possible types of material. If there is anything missing, please contact us on Skills@hull.ac.uk and we will advise you personally and then add the information to this page.

Books (print and electronic)

Include the following information:

Surname, Initials. (Year) Title of book in sentence case* and italics: subtitle if present. City published: Publisher.

Robinson, K. (2001) Out of our minds: learning to be creative. Chichester: Capstone Publishing Ltd.

Gartner, M. (1993) Macroeconomics under flexible exchange rates. New York: Harvester Wheatsheaf.

*Sentence case means you only capitalise the first word and any proper nouns.

Give the following information:

Surnames and initials of all authors (Year) Title of book in sentence case: subtitle if present. City published: Publisher.

For two authors use an ampersand (&) between them:

Nunn, C. L. & Altizer, S. M. (2006) Infectious diseases in primates: behavior, ecology and evolution. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

For more than two authors, list all the names, separated by commas with an ampersand (&) before the last (do not use et al. in reference lists):

Daiches, D., Thorlby, A., Mottram, E., Bradbury, M., Franco, J., Dudley, D. R. & Lang, D. M. (1971) The Penguin companion to literature. London: Allen Lane.

Put the edition number after the book title (after a comma). Use the full word 'edition' not an abbreviation (to distinguish it from the abbreviation for editor):

Author(s) (Year) Title of book in sentence case: subtitle if present, No edition. City published: Publisher.

Lynch, P. J. & Horton, S. (2008) Web style guide, 3rd edition. London: Yale University Press.

As for an authored book with the addition of (ed) or (eds) after editor name(s) i.e.

Editor (ed) (Year) Title of book in sentence case: subtitle if present. City published: Publisher.

Hacket, P. (ed) (2010) The Andy Warhol diaries. London: Penguin Classics.

Bradley, A. & DuBois, A. (eds) (2010) The anthology of rap. New Haven: Yale University Press.

You need to give the title of the chapter and the title of the book. The title of the book, not the chapter needs to be in italics. If the chapter date is different to the book publication date (e.g. for collected articles) put the book date after (ed), before the book title.

Author(s) (Year) Title of chapter. In Editor(s) (ed(s)) Title of book. City published: Publisher, page range of chapter.

Clark, R. E. & Feldon, D. F. (2005) The multimedia principle. In Mayer, R. E. (ed) The Cambridge handbook of multimedia learning. New York: Cambridge University Press, 117-134.

There is no need to give information about which provider you accessed the eBook through. It is sufficient to indicate that it is an eBook that you have read by putting [eBook] in square brackets after the book title or edition information. If no place of publication information is available, don't worry, just put the publisher. URLs are not required as these are usually session specific and would not link the reader to the eBook:

Author(s) (Year) Title of book [eBook]. City published (if available): Publisher.

Stein, J. L. & Allen, P. R. (1998) Fundamental determinants of exchange rates [eBook]. New York: Oxford University Press.

Parnell, H. (1805) The principles of currency and exchange, 4th edition [eBook]. London: J. Budd.

As with other eBooks, it is sufficient to make it clear which version of the book you have read. This information is placed after the book title or edition information. You should include download dates if possible (versions are updated and this should be reflected). Download dates are usually the same as your purchase dates and can be found by looking back at your order history online. If you no longer have access to this information, don't worry, just give what information you have. City or publisher information is often unavailable and can be omitted if this is the case (although can often be found at the end of your eReader book).

Author(s) (Year) Title of book, eReader version. City published: Publisher.[Downloaded date].

Stevenson, D. (2003) Story theater method: strategic storytelling in business, Kindle version. Colorado Springs: Cornelia Press. [Downloaded 2011].

Sheldrake, R., McKenna, T. & Abraham, R. (2001) Chaos, creativity and cosmic consciousness, Kobo version. Inner Traditions/Bear & Company. [Downloaded 4/8/2014].

Reminder: When quoting directly from eReader books where no page number information is present, location information can be used for in-text citations instead: (Stevensen, 2011:loc 211).

You should include details for the translator and an indication of the original language. If the original was a historically significant book, include the date of the original as well as the translation (the original date would then be the one in your in-text citation).

Author(s) (Year) Title of book. Translated from (language) by (name of translator, date if needed). City published: Publisher.

Wolf, C. (2007) One day a year, 1960-2000. Translated from German by L. A. Bangerter. New York: Europa Editions.

Sartre, J. P. (1946) Existentialism and humanism. Translated from French by P. Mairet, 2007. London: Metheun.

Audio books on CD:

Author(s) (Year) Title of book [Audio CD]. Version (abridged or unabridged). City published: Publisher.

Tracy, B. C. (2012) Time management made simple [Audio CD]. Unabridged. New York: Gildan Media Corporation.

Audio books via download:

Author(s) (Year) Title of book [Audio download]. Version (abridged or unabridged). Publisher. [Downloaded date].

Tracy, B. C. (2012) Time management made simple [Audio download]. Unabridged. Gildan Media Corporation. [Downloaded 6/8/2014].

Note: When quoting directly from audio books, you will need to give a time stamp rather than page number in your in-text citation: (Tracy, 2012:27 min).

Articles (journal, newspaper and magazine)

Print journals and online versions of printed journals should be referenced in the same way. There is no need to state that a journal was accessed online or through which database (unless it is an online-only journal in which case see below). Include the following information:

Author(s) (Year) Title of article in sentence case*. Journal title in italics, Issue information**, page range.

Al-Wazaify, M., Matowe, L., Albsoul-Younes, A. & Al-Omran, O. A. (2006) Pharmacy education in Jordan, Saudi Arabia, and Kuwait. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 70(1), 18-20.

Brach, C. & Fraserirector, I. (2000) Can cultural competency reduce racial and ethnic health disparities? A review and conceptual model. Medical Care Research and Review, 57 (Suppl 1), 181-217.

Allen, T. (1916) Renaissance. The English Review, December, 481-482.

*Sentence case means you only capitalise the first word and any proper nouns.

**Issue information is usually volume and issue but can sometimes be volume only or include supplement information. Occasionally it is a season (Spring, Summer etc), month or date (do not repeat the year if this is the case).

Give the following information, note that page numbers are not often used:

Author(s) (Year) Title of article. Journal title in italics, Issue information. Available online: URL for the article [Accessed date].

Bowstead, H. (2011) Coming to writing, Journal of Learning Development in Higher Education, 3. Available online: http://www.aldinhe.ac.uk/ojs/index.php?journal=jldhe&page=article&op=view&path%5B%5D=128&path%5B%5D=88 [Accessed 8/8/2014].

As with journals, it is not necessary to give the online information if you are referring to a printed article, or one that only came out in print originally:

Author if known or newspaper title if not (Year) Title of the article or column heading. Title of the newspaper, Day and Month, Page number.

Gunn, J. (1984) Why London will have to go international. The Times (London), 28 November, 17.

Cardiff Times (1910) Clydach Vale Disaster. Cardiff Times, 14 May, 10.

Internet editions of newspaper articles are often slightly different to the printed articles (information may be added or excluded). It is therefore important to make it clear that you have accessed the article online:

Author if known or newspaper title if not (Year) Title of the article. Title of the newspaper, Internet Edition. Day and Month. Available online: URL [Accessed date].

Karim, N. (2014) Giant penguin fossil shows bird was taller than most humans. The Guardian, Internet edition. 4 August. Available online: http://www.theguardian.com/science/2014/aug/04/giant-penguin-fossil-antarctica [Accessed 5/8/2014].

These are similar to printed newspaper or journal articles:

Author if known or magazine/comic title if not (Year) Title of the article or comic strip. Title of the Magazine/Comic, Issue or date, page number if relevant.

Magazines:

Evans, L. & Winkler, D. (2011) Equador: into the fungal jungle. Fungi, 4(4) Fall, 10-12.

Tanner, M. (2014) Maria Callas: Prima Donna. BBC Music Magazine, September 2014, 27-31.

Comics:

Beano (2000) Minnie the Minx. The Beano, No 3000, 15 January, 2.

Cooper, C. (1998) T'Priell Revealed Pt 2. Star Trek, Starfleet Academy, February 1998.

Official Governmental and NGO documents

The way we reference Acts changed in 1963. Before that, the year of reign of the monarch (regnal year) needs to be included:

Prior to 1963

Name of Act (short title with key words capitalised) (Year) Regnal year, Chapter Number. City published: Publisher.

Friendly Societies Act (1955) 4 Elizabeth II, Chapter 19. London: HMSO.

Since 1963

Name of Act (short title with key words capitalised) (Year) Chapter Number. City published: Publisher.

Criminal Justice Act (2003) Chapter 44. Norwich: The Stationery Office.

If you wish to refer to a particular section (known as a schedule) or paragraph you can add that extra information to your in-text citation:

(Criminal Justice Act, 2003:s35(122))

The title of Statutory Instruments includes a date which is why this looks a little different to other references:

Title with key words capitalised (including bracketed information if present) (SI Year and Number). City published: Publisher.

The Criminal Justice (Sentencing)(Licence Conditions) Order 2003 (SI 2003/3337). London: The Stationery Office Ltd.

The Openness of Local Government Bodies Regulations 2014 (SI 2014/2095). London: The Stationery Office Ltd.

Note The in-text citation for Statutory Instruments is the short title including year, maintaining italics. (The Criminal Justice Order, 2003)

Legal citation takes a particular format, not part of the Harvard system:

Names of the parties involved (these could be letters if anonymised). Year of reporting - in square brackets or round brackets* Volume number Abbreviation of the law report series, First page of reference.

Callery v Gray (No 2) [2001] 4 All ER, 1.

F v Leeds City Council [1994] 2 FCR, 428.

Brown v Board of Education (1954) 347 U.S., 483.

In the example above All ER = All England Law Reports, FCR = Family Court Reports and U.S. = United States Reports

Note In-text citations just use the names and date i.e. (Callery v Gray, 2001).

*Square brackets are used when the date is the primary method for finding the case (in the examples above there are more than one volume 4 and 2 in those report series). Round brackets are used when the date is not necessary to find the case (there is only one volume 347 in the United States Reports).

You need to include the official number of the paper (usually found at the bottom left of the front cover):

Authorship (Year) Title of document (Official number). City published: Publisher. Available online: URL [Accessed date].

The British Museum (2014) Report and accounts for the year ended 31st March 2014 (HC 436). London: Williams Lea for HMSO.

HM Government (2012) Open Data White Paper: Unleashing the potential (Cm 8353). London: The Stationery Office Ltd.

You need to include the identifying letters and numbers, they come before the title:

Standards Institution (Year) Letters and numbers of standard: Full title of standard . City published: Publisher.

International Standards Office (2011) ISO 50001:2011: Energy management systems: requirements with guidance for use. Geneva: ISO.

British Standards Institution (2010) BS ISO 690:2010: Information and documentation. Guidelines for bibliographic references and citations to information resources. London: BSI.

If the patent is available online, show where and when you accessed it:

Inventer name (Year) Title of patent. Country granting patent, Patent number. Available online: URL [Accessed date].

Borgen, E. (2013) Wind turbine rotor with improved hub system. UK Patent GB2495084.

Karsten, S. (2014) Wind turbine tower and method of production thereof. US Patent US2014237919(A1). Available online: http://worldwide.espacenet.com/publicationDetails/biblio?FT=D&date=20140828&DB=EPODOC&locale=en_EP&CC=US&NR=2014237919A1&KC=A1&ND=5 [Accessed 28/8/2014].

Include the following information:

Name of institution - common abbreviations acceptable (Year) Title of document (Official number). City published: Publisher (often the institution in full).

CEC (2005) Communication. Further guidance on allocation plans (COM(2005)703 final). Brussels: Commission of the European Communities.

European Council (2014) Special meeting of the European Council (16 July 2014) (EUCO 147/14). Brussels: European Council.

The United Nations produce both internal documents and external publications. These include resolutions, statements, reports etc. Titles could be long, sometimes (as for statements) the actual document does not say what they are about in their title but the initial link to them does. It is hard to produce a template that covers them all, but use the basic one below as guidance, adapting it as needed for the document in question.

Links to online versions may not be needed - check with your supervisor/lecturer.

Name of institution/committee - common abbreviations acceptable (Year) Title of document (Full date of document, Official number). Available online: URL [Accessed date].

UN General Assembly (2014) Outcome document of the high-level meeting of the General Assembly on the comprehensive review and assessment of the progress achieved in the prevention and control of non-communicable diseases (10 July 2014, A/RES/68/300).

UN Security Council (2010) Statement by the President of the Security Council on the Middle East (22 December 2010, S/PRST/2010/30). Available online: http://www.un.org/en/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=S/PRST/2010/30 [Accessed 22/8/2014].

UN Security Council (2014) Security Council Press Statement on Terrorist Attack in Mali (18 August 2014, SC/11523, AFR/2951, PKO/426). Available online: http://www.un.org/News/Press/docs//2014/sc11523.doc.htm [Accessed 22/8/2014].

There are so many different non-governmental organisations that a fixed template is difficult to create. Adapt the one below as necessary, trying to keep the styling consistent:

Name of organisation - common abbreviations acceptable (Year) Title of document (Full date of document, Official number if given). City or country published: Publisher. Available online: URL [Accessed date].

UNESCO (2014) Teaching and learning: achieving quality for all; EFA global monitoring report, 2013-2014. Paris: UNESCO Publishing. Available online: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0022/002256/225660e.pdf [Accessed 22/8/2014].

The World Bank (2014) Brazil: Implementation Status and Results, Development Policies for the State of Sergipe (P129652, Report No ISR15802). Available online: http://www-wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/LCR/2014/08/18/090224b082652070/1_0/Rendered/PDF/Brazil000Devel0Report000Sequence003.pdf [Accessed 22/8/2014].

Danish Refugee Council (2014) Strategic Programme Document - DRC/DDG in Libya and Tunisia. Available online: http://drc.dk/fileadmin/uploads/pdf/IA_PDF/North_Africa/2014.04.09_SPD_-_Libya_Tunisia_-_2014.pdf [Accessed 22/8/2014].

Other documents

Conference papers are the individual papers presented at a conference, symposium or seminar. Conference proceedings are the collected papers of the whole conference, published together. Individual conference papers may be unpublished in which case omit the publishing information.

Conference paper:

Author(s) (Year) Title of paper in sentence case*. Title of conference: subtitle if present, Location and date of conference. City published: Publisher, page range.

Blozijl, W. & Andeweg, B. (2005) The effects of text slide format and presentation quality on learning in college lectures. IEEE International Professional Communication Conference. Limerick, 10-13 July 2005, 288-299.

Conference proceedings:

Author/Editor (Year) Title of proceedings. Title of conference: subtitle if present, Location and date of conference. City published: Publisher.

Transportation Research Board (2013) City logistics research: a transatlantic perspective. EU-US Transportation Symposium. Washington, D. C., 30-31 May 2013. Washington: Transportation Research Board.

Note that the publisher is often the same as the organisation:

Printed report

Author/Organisation (Year) Full title of report. City published: Publisher.

BT Group plc (2014) Annual report and Form 20-F 2014. London: BT Group plc.

Online report

Author/Organisation (Year) Full title of report. City published: Publisher (if available). Available online: URL [Accessed date].

NHS (2013) Everyone counts: planning for patients 2013/14. NHS Commissioning Board. Available online: http://www.england.nhs.uk/wp-content/uploads/2012/12/everyonecounts-planning.pdf [Accessed 12/9/2014].

Government/NGO Reports

These are slightly different - see section above.

Give the following information ('Available online' is optional).

Author (Year) Title of dissertation/thesis. Document type. Name of University. Available online: URL [Accessed date].

Stern, B. H. (2013) The impact of leadership on school improvement. EdD thesis. The University of Hull. Available online: https://hydra.hull.ac.uk/resources/hull:8431 [Accessed 21/8/2014].

Walsh, R. J. (1977) Charles the Bold, last Valois Duke of Burgundy 1467-1477 and Italy. PhD thesis. The University of Hull.

When referencing texts such as the bible, Qur'an or Torah, include the following information:

Title of the version you have used (Year) Translated by name of translater (if given). City published: Publisher.

The Holy Bible: Authorised King James Version (2011) Glasgow: Harper Collins.

The Qur'an (Oxford World's Classics) (2004) Translated by M. A. S. Abdel Haleem. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

The Torah: the five books of Moses (2000) Translated by J.P.S. and Moshe Greenberg. Philadelphia: The Jewish Publication Society.

PDF document are nearly always accessed online, and so you can point readers to the URL along with other information. If the URL is unavailable (for instance if you have been emailed it) or if you have no publisher information, just give as much information as you have or can find.

Author(s) (Year) Title of document. City published: Publisher. Available online: URL [Accessed date].

Godin, S. (2012) Stop stealing dreams: what is school for? Do You Zoom, Inc. Available online: http://www.sethgodin.com/sg/docs/stopstealingdreamsscreen.pdf [Accessed 6/8/14].

H. M. Government (2010) The coalition: our programme for government. London: Cabinet Office. Available online: https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/78977/
coalition_programme_for_government.pdf
[Accessed 6/8/14].

For leaflets, handouts, flyers etc just provide what information you can:

Author/organisation (Year) Title of document. Other useful details.

University of Hull (2012) Learning, Teaching and Student Experience Strategy 2012-15 [Booklet]. University of Hull.

The Deep (2014) The Deep: for conservation not profit [Leaflet].

Archive material is often unique: books could be annoted etc which means that the collection that they came from is equally as important as the document details.

Author/organisation (Year). Title of document, Edition and publisher information if relevant [Medium]. Whatever collection details are available (i.e. name of collection, reference numbers, location, name of library/archive).

Larkin, P. A. (1950) Workbook No 1 [Manuscript]. Papers of Philip Arthur Larkin, U DPL/1/1, Hull University Archives, Hull History Centre.

Smyth, R. & Thuilier, H. E. L. (1855) A manual of surveying for India: detailing the mode of operations on trigonametrical, topographical and revenue surveys of India, 2nd Edition. London: W. Thacker and Co. [Book]. Monograph, mg NO2/24Z3, Royal Geographical Society/Institute of British Geographers Archive. London.

Wilberforce, W. (1816) Letter to James Thomson Esq [Letter]. William Wilberforce letters, L DFWW/1/10, Hull Local Studies Library, Hull History Centre.

Online sources (see also Audiovisual etc below)

First, please note that a website URL is NEVER a suitable reference on its own. Sometimes the author (even an organisation) is not clear. If that is the case, use the webpage title (and a short form of this as your in-text citation). Dates can often be found in copyright information at the bottom of the page. If a range is given, use the later year. Use n.d. if no date available at all.

Author(s) (Year) Title of web page in sentence case*. Available online: URL [Accessed date].

Individual Author(s)

Reynolds, G. (2005) Top ten slide tips. Available online: http://www.garrreynolds.com/preso-tips/design/ [Accessed 27/3/2014].

Company author

SocialBakers (2014) LinkedIn statistics, number of LinkedIn users & demographics. Available online: http://www.socialbakers.com/linkedin-statistics/ [Accessed 26/3/2014].

No author or company name

Gourmet coffee boom takes Russia by storm (2013). Available online: http://www.8975.co.uk/gourmet-coffee/ [Accessed 2/1/2014].

*Sentence case means you only capitalise the first word and any proper nouns.

Blogs are often unsubstantiated opinions and should be used with caution as academic references. However, some reputable, published authors have their own blogs which can provide useful, up to date comments and insights. Include the following information:

Author (Year) Title of blog post. Title of website. Day and month of post. Available online: URL [Accessed date].

Godin, S. (2014) Trading favors. Seth's Blog. 31 July. Available online: http://sethgodin.typepad.com/seths_blog/2014/07/trading-favors.html [Accessed 8/8/2014].

Reynolds, G. (2014) Story structure, simplicity, & hacking away at the unessential. Presentation Zen. 13 June. Available online: http://www.presentationzen.com/presentationzen/2014/06/one-key-to-story-design-is-to-hack-away-at-the-unessential.html. [Accessed 6/8/2014].

Note - Some bloggers give permalinks to individual posts and these should be used for URLs if possible.

Quite often you are referring to an answer rather than a question in a forum, however, it is the question that you reference in this case. Always check the expertise of the answerer and use with caution and criticality. Author names are usually aliases, type them as they appear.

Author (Date) Title of post (often a question). Title of Forum. Day and Month of post. Available online: URL [Accessed date].

jlawler (2014) Can the term "homorganic" be applied to vowels and glides? Linguistics Stack Exchange. 8 August. Available online: http://linguistics.stackexchange.com/questions/8764/can-the-term-homorganic-be-applied-to-vowels-and-glides [Accessed 8/8/2014].

When referencing a YouTube video, it is the name of the person who posted the video, not who made it that you reference (these can be the same or different). Use the URL that you get when you click the 'Share' link as it is shorter than the one in the URL box:

Name of person posting video (Year uploaded) Title of video, Series title if relevant [Video]. Available online: URL [Accessed Date].

Tunalioglu, M. E. (2011) Richard Phillips Feynman - The Last Journey of a Genius [Video]. Available online: http://youtu.be/Mn4_40hAAr0 [Accessed 8/8/2014].

Harvard University (2009) Episode 02: Putting a price tag on life, Justice: What's the right thing to do? [Video]. Available online: http://youtu.be/0O2Rq4HJBxw [Accessed 9/8/2012].

For other social media, adapt whichever of the following is most appropriate.

Facebook

If your reader needs to register (and be accepted) to see the entries you are referring to, and you are not quoting them in full within your text, it is wise to include a copy of the actual text as an appendix to your work.

Author (Year) Title of Page (could just be author's timeline) [Facebook]. Day and month posted. Available online: URL [Accessed date].

Reynolds, G. (2014) Garr Reynolds Timeline [Facebook]. 10 August. Available online: https://www.facebook.com/garr.reynolds?fref=nf [Accessed 13/8/2014].

Fallin, L. (2014) Skills Team at Hull [Facebook]. 24 March. Available online: https://www.facebook.com/SkillsTeam [Accessed 13/8/2014].

Twitter

Author (Year) Full text of tweet (as written) [Twitter]. Day and month posted. Available online: URL [Accessed date].

Glass, N. (2009) wondering just how far this moment is from dreams I've had. it all feels vaguely familiar yet completely foreign. resisting tears. so tired [Twitter]. 30 March. Available online: https://twitter.com/noah/status/1422661056 [Accessed 13/8/2014].

If your reader needs to subscribe to see the entries you are referring to, and you are not quoting them in full within your text, it is wise to include a copy of the actual text as an appendix to your work. In this case, add 'see appendix n' after your in-text citation.

Author (Year) Subject line. Title of mailing list. Day and Month of message. Available online: URL [Accessed date].

Keenan, C. (2014) Peer led academic learning and disability. Learning Development in Higher Education Network. 8 August. Available online: ldhen@jiscmail.ac.uk [Accessed 13/8/2014].

Images, artwork and maps

You should reference every photograph you use unless you took it yourself. Give the following information:

Online photographs

Photographer (Surname, Initials if available, username if not) (Year) Title of photograph (or description if none available) [Photograph]. Available online: URL [Accessed date].

keithhull (2009) Hull is the new UK City of Culture for 2017 [Photograph]. Available online: https://www.flickr.com/photos/21506908@N07/3478651395 [Accessed 14/8/2014].

Harrop, P. (2012) Plinth and Maritime Museum, Hull [Photograph]. Available online: http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/2843877 [Accessed 14/8/2014].

Prints, slides or negatives (in known collections)

Photographer (Year) Title of photograph in italics [Photograph]. Whatever collection details are available (i.e. name of collection, reference numbers, location, name of library/archive).

Larkin, P. A. (1970s) Negative of [Monica Jones] on a ferry [Photograph]. Photographs of Philip Arthur Larkin, U DLV/2/1/30, Hull University Archives, Hull History Centre.

Watson, R. T. (1906) Hull City Football Team 1906-7 taken at Anlaby Road Hull the City football ground [Photograph]. Records of the Copyright Office, Stationers' Company, Copy 1/506/148, The National Archives, Kew.

Prints, slides or negatives (not in collections)

Photographer (Year) Title of photograph (or description if none available) [Photograph]. Place of publication: publisher (if available).

Bartram, J. A. (2012) Bluebells in North Cliffe Woods [Photograph]. York.

If the illustration/figure/table is created by the author (basically not attributed to anyone else) then just cite the book as normal, giving the appropriate page number. If the image is attributed to someone else, the in-text citation would include both the person responsible for the image and the author(s) of the book:

Michel Eienne Turgot and Louis Bretez's Plan de Paris (in Tufte, 1990:36) is a classic example of ...

The reference list entry would then just be for the book itself:

Tufte, E. R. (1990) Envisioning information. Cheshire CT: Graphics Press.

Give as much as the following information as you can find (online information optional):

Artist (Year) Title of cartoon [Cartoon]. Title of publication, Day and Month. Available online: URL [Accessed date].

Rawson, M. (2014) Wealth inequality [Cartoon]. The Guardian, 29 July. Available online: http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/cartoon/2014/jul/29/martin-rowson-rich-wealth-good-inequality-cuts [Accessed 14/8/2014].

Give as much of the following information as you can find. If available online, add Available online: URL [Accessed date]:

Artist (Year) Title of work [Medium]. Institution/collection, City (or Location, Exhibition, dates of exhibition).

Denison, T. (n.d.) Clippers on the Humber [Original Watercolour]. Myton Gallery, Hull.

Cook, B. (2008) Tommy Dancing [Oil]. Hull Maritime Museum, Working Hard, Playing Hard, 5 April - 8 June 2014.

Gold, B. (1979) Alien [Poster]. Available online: http://www.complex.com/pop-culture/2013/05/most-iconic-movie-posters-of-all-time/alien [Accessed 15/8/2012].

Include as much of the following information as you can find:

Artist (Year) Title of the work (exclude year if given) [Medium]. Name of collection/exhibition information or Location (include date seen for temporary installations).

Moore, H. S. (1968) Large Totem Head [Bronze Sculpture]. Yorkshire Sculpture Park.

Producoes, S. (2013) Colourful Canopies of Umbrellas [Installation]. Agueda, Portugal, July 2013.

Ordnance Survey map

Ordnance Survey (Year) Title of map, Edition if not first. Map/sheet number, Scale. Map series if appropriate. Place of publication: Publisher.

Ordnance Survey (2006) Kingston Upon Hull. Ed C2. 107, 1:50 000. Landranger series. Southampton: Ordnance Survey.

Other map

Map producer (Year) Title of map, Edition if not first. Map/sheet number, Scale. Place of publication: Publisher.

International Travel Maps (2008) South America, 5th edition. ITM.875, 1:4 000 000. Richmond, BC: ITMB Publishing.

Max, M. D., Long, C. B. & MacDermot, C. V. (1992) Bedrock Geology of North Mayo, Sheet 6, 1:100,000. Dublin: Geological Survey of Ireland.

Atlas

Reference as a standard book, giving scales if relevant. For a specific page, include the page number at the end of the in-text citation only.

Butler, R. (1959) Atlas of Kenya. Nairobi: Survey of Kenya.

Bossard, L. (2009) Regional atlas on West Africa [eBook]. Paris: OECD Publishing.

Digimap (viewed, annoted or printed)

Digimap does have a citation generator, but this provides a citation that is not consistent with the rest of our scheme so we do not recommend you use it (although it can sometimes be useful to confirm information).

Digimaps are generated by you, so you will have to give a description of the the map that makes it clear what it is showing as its title. Other information can be found by clicking on Map Information on the left of your screen or for some services, clicking the Sheet Information button (i) and then clicking on the map. The publisher is usually the copyright holder (check the bottom of the map). The citation year should be from the map date, if no map date is available, use the copyright date.

Map publisher (Year) Title/description of map. Scale. Source (Map Product). Created online: http://edina.ac.uk/digimap [Created on date].

Ordnance Survey (2014) Kingston upon Hull. 1:100 000. EDINA Digimap (OS Strategi). Created online: http://edina.ac.uk/digimap [Created 18/8/2014].

Landmark Information Group (1971) Barmby Moor, East Yorkshire. 1:2 500. National Grid Tile SE7748. EDINA Historic Digimap Service. Created online: http://edina.ac.uk/digimap [Created 18/8/2014].

Natural Environment Research Council (2014) Vale of Pickering. 1:50 000. EDINA Geology Digimap Service (British Geological Survey). Created online: http://edina.ac.uk/digimap [Created 18/8/2014].

Map created using GIS software

When you create a map that you include in your assignment, you only need to reference the data source and the tool you used (it is your own work after all). Caption your figure with 'Created with (Software), data from (Producer, Year)'. In your reference list, give as much as the following information as is relevant (you can find a lot of the information when you view your basket):

Producer (Version Year) [data format] Scale, Tile(s). Product name, version: date. Available online: http://edina.ac.uk/digimap [Downloaded date].

Ordnance Survey (2013) [DWG geospacial data] 1:50 000, Tiles SE7954, SE7955, SE8054, SE8055. OS MasterMap, version: December 2013. Available online: http://edina.ac.uk/digimap [Downloaded 21/8/2014].

British Geological Survey (2013) [Shapefile geospacial data] 1:50 000, Tile TA41. Onshore Geology, version: 2013. Available online: http://edina.ac.uk/digimap [Downloaded 21/8/2014].

Google maps/Bing maps

URLs can be found for specific map views by clicking the Share button in each case. In Bing maps the URL is shown, in Google maps you will need to right-click on the Google Maps link (if you have searched, the link may be your search term) and and choose to copy the link address.

Map provider (Copyright date) Description of map, View information. Available online: URL [Accessed 21/8/2014].

Google Maps (2014) Humber Dock Marina, Satellite view. Available online: https://www.google.co.uk/maps/@53.73926,-0.3387019,622m/data=!3m1!1e3 [Accessed 22/8/2014].

Bing Maps (2014) The University of Hull campus, Bird's eye view. Available online: http://binged.it/1tkVlri [Accessed 22/8/2014].

Audiovisual sources

Many referencing systems suggest that you need to include a place of distribution. However, this is rarely available on DVDs etc so we suggest you just put the distributor/studio which can usually be found on the reverse. If a place is available, include it before a colon as with publisher information.

Film

Title in italics (Year of release) Directed by Director name [Medium]. Studio/Distributer.

Good Morning, Vietnam (1988) Directed by Barry Levinson [DVD]. Walt Disney Studios Home Entertainment.

Good Will Hunting (2011) Directed by Gus Van Sant [Blu-ray]. Lions Gate Home Entertainment.

TV programme

Title (Year of distribution). Directed by Director name. Written by Writer name (if known) [Medium]. Distributer.

In the Wild: Dolphins with Robin Williams (1998) Directed by Nigel Cole [VHS]. NTV.

Episode of a TV programme

Episode title (Year of distribution) Programme title, series and episode numbers. Directed by Director name. Written by Writer name (if known) [Medium]. Place of distribution: Distributer.

Old Fears (1979) Mork & Mindy, season 2, episode 12. Directed by Howard Storm. Written by April Kelly [DVD]. Los Angeles: Paramount.

Extra commentaries

If extra commentaries by directors/producers/actors etc are given on a DVD/Blu-ray you would reference using the person's name rather than the title:

Commentator (Year) Director's (or other) commentary. Title of Film. Version if needed. Directed by Director name [Medium]. Studio/Distributer.

Snyder, Z. (2009) Director's commentary. Watchmen, Director's Cut, Special Edition. Directed by Zach Snyder [Blu-ray]. Warner Bros.

McCarthy T., Powers, J. & Thompson, D. (2004) Critics' commentary. The Ultimate Matrix Collection. Directed by the Wachowski Brothers [DVD collection]. Warner Bros.

Dates given in brackets should be the original broadcast year (the copyright year given at the end of the programme). You may be able to find this and information such as writers etc on something like IMDb if you do not have the credits recorded. The broadcast date is the broadcast that you actually watched (except for online subscription-only programmes, in which case it is the release date).

TV programme

Title (Year of first broadcast). Directed by Director name (if known). Written by Writer name (if known) [TV Programme]. TV channel (or service if online only), broadcast day and month, time.

Scotland decides: Salmond versus Darling (2014) [TV Programme]. BBC TWO, 25 August, 20:30.

If you are quoting a specific person on a programme, you can include their name first and cite them directly in the text instead of the programme name i.e. (Salmond, 2014):

Salmond, A. (2014) Scotland decides: Salmond versus Darling (2014) [TV Programme]. BBC TWO, 25 August, 20:30.

Episode of a TV programme

Episode title (Year of first broadcast) Programme title, series and episode numbers. Directed by Director name. Written by Writer name (if known) [TV programme]. TV channel (or service if online only). Broadcast day and month, time.

The Empty Chair (2014) The Honourable Woman, season 1, episode 1. Directed by Hugo Blick. Written by Hugo Blick [TV programme]. BBC TWO. 3 July, 21:00.

Chapter 2 (2014) House of Cards, season 1, episode 2. Directed by David Fincher. Written by Beau Willimon [TV Programme]. Netflix, 1 February.

Programmes/episodes watched via Box of Broadcasts

Please DO NOT cite these using the information given in the How to cite this tab underneath the broadcast window. Instead, just add the URL and access information as with other online resources:

Scotland decides: Salmond versus Darling (2014) [TV Programme]. BBC TWO, 25 August, 20:30. Available online: http://bobnational.net/record/236557 [Accessed 30/8/2014].

Radio programme

This is the same as for TV programmes but use [Radio Programme] instead:

In Tune (2014) [Radio Programme]. BBC Radio 3, 18 August, 16:30.

Skomer (2006) Afternoon Play. Written by Mike Akers [Radio Programme]. BBC Radio 4, 30 October, 14:15. Available online: http://bobnational.net/record/215 [Accessed 18/8/2014].

If you are quoting a specific person on the programme, you can include their name first and cite them directly in the text instead of the programme name i.e. (Rafferty, 2014):

Rafferty, S. In Tune (2014) [Radio Programme]. BBC Radio 3, 18 August, 16:30.

Film, cinema release or TV

Title in italics (Year of release) Directed by Director name [Film]. Place of distribution (if known): Studio/Distributer.

Dawn of the Planet of the Apes (2014) Directed by Matt Reeves. 20th Century Fox.

Film, seen on Box of Broadcasts

Please DO NOT cite these using the information given in the How to cite this tab underneath the broadcast window. Instead, just add the URL and access information as with other online resources. If distributer information is cut off the end by the TV channel, try looking on IMDb (Company Credits link):

Title in italics (Year of release) Directed by Director name [Film]. Place of distribution (if known): Studio/Distributer. Available online: http://bobnational.net/record/234816 [Accessed date].

The Birds (1963) Directed by Alfred Hitchcock [Film]. Universal Pictures. Available online: http://bobnational.net/record/234816 [Accessed 15/9/2014].

If the author or presenter of the podcast is not known, use the organisation or website name instead. Sometimes you need to work out the year as it may give the last updated information as '4 years ago' or something similar.

Author/Presenter (Year last updated) Title of podcast. Name of Web page [Podcast]. Day and month of post if shown. Available online: URL [Accessed date].

Harford, T. (2014) Student loans. More or Less: Behind the Stats [Podcast]. 15 August. Available online: http://downloads.bbc.co.uk/podcasts/radio4/moreorless/moreorless_20140815-1655c.mp3 [Accessed 19/8/2014].

Heaversedge, J. (2010) What is mindfulness? Mental Health Foundation [Podcast]. Available online: http://www.mentalhealth.org.uk/content/assets/audio/what-is-mindfulness-mp3.mp3 [Accessed 19/8/2014].

Fearless Social (2014) How to use magazines to write better Facebook ads. Fearless Social: Social Marketing Evolved [Podcast]. 7 August. Available online: https://itunes.apple.com/gb/podcast/fearless-social-social-marketing/id904864342?mt=2 [Accessed 19/8/2014].

When referencing a YouTube video, it is the name of the person who posted the video, not who made it that you reference (these can be the same or different). Use the URL that you get when you click the 'Share' link as it is shorter than the one in the URL box:

Name of person posting video (Year uploaded) Title of video, Series title if relevant [Video]. Available online: URL [Accessed Date].

Tunalioglu, M. E. (2011) Richard Phillips Feynman - The Last Journey of a Genius [Video]. Available online: http://youtu.be/Mn4_40hAAr0 [Accessed 8/8/2014].

Harvard University (2009) Episode 02: Putting a price tag on life, Justice: What's the right thing to do? [Video]. Available online: http://youtu.be/0O2Rq4HJBxw [Accessed 9/8/2012].

Most presentations you will reference will be accessed online, so reference as follows:

Author(s) (Year uploaded). Title of presentation [Presentation]. Available online: URL [Accessed date].

Brenman, J. (2008) Thirst [Presentation]. Available online: http://www.slideshare.net/jbrenman/thirst [Accessed 29/8/2014].

Duarte, N. (2014) Slidedocs: spread ideas with effective visual documents [Presentation]. Available online: http://www.duarte.com/slidedocs/ [Accessed 29/8/2014].

If you accessed the presentations via other means, omit the 'Available online' information.

Music

Year should be the copyright year on the score itself, not the date the composition was written. If no year is given on scanned online scores (for instance on IMSLP), use (n.d). If no date is given on modern works, use the uploaded or last updated date. Editor or arranger information is not always relevant.

Individual score (print)

Composer (Year of publication) Title of score including work number if known [Musical score]. Editor or arranger information. City published: Publisher.

Stravinsky, I. (1967) Rite of spring: pictures from pagan Russia in two parts [Musical score]. London: Boosey & Hawkes.

Rimsky-Korsakoff, N. (1955) Trombone Concerto [Musical score]. Reduction for tenor trombone and piano by Harold Perry. London: Boosey & Hawkes.

Individual score (online)

Composer (Year) Title of score including work number if known [Musical score]. Editor or arranger information. City published: Publisher (if given). Available online: URL [Accessed date].

Bach, J. S. (2008) Canon for Walther, BWV 1073 [Musical score]. Edited by Alfred Dorffel. Leipzig: Breitkopf & Hartel. Available online: http://imslp.org/wiki/Special:ImagefromIndex/188975 [Accessed 20/8/2014].

Raboud-Theurillat, M. (2005) Saisons, op 40 [Musical score]. Available online: http://www.free-scores.com/PDFSUP_EN/raboud-theurillat-marie-christine-saisons-saisons-flute-67951.pdf [Accessed 20/8/2014].

Scores that are part of collected works

Composer (Year of publication) Title of score, Title of collection [Musical score]. City published: Publisher. Available online: URL [Accessed date] (if relavent).

Britten, B (1960) How sweet the answer (The Wren), Folksong Arrangements, Vol 4 Moore's Irish Melodies [Musical score]. London: Boosey & Hawkes.

Scores that are part of anthologies

Composer (Year of publication) Title of score. In Editor name (ed) Title of anthology [Musical score]. City published: Publisher. Available online: URL [Accessed date] (if relevant).

Handel, G. F. (1902) Deborah. In Spicker, M. (ed) Anthology of sacred song, Vol 1 (Soprano) [Musical score]. New York: G. Shirmer. Available online: http://conquest.imslp.info/files/imglnks/usimg/e/e9/IMSLP38723-PMLP85325-VA_-_Anthology_of_Sacred_Songs._Vol1-soprano.pdf [Accessed 20/8/2014].

CD, audio cassette or vinyl

If dates are not available on older vinyl recordings, use (n.d.)

Composer (Year of release) Title of work. Title of Album if different to work. Performer/orchestra conducted by Conductor name (if relevant) [Medium]. City of distribution: (if known) Distributor/Label.

Elgar, E. (1995) Cello Concerto, Op 85, Enigma Variations. Philadelphia Orchestra, London Philharmonic Orchestra and Jacqueline Du Pré conducted by Daniel Barenboim [CD]. Sony Music Classical.

Bach, J. S. (2012) Variato 8. A 2 Clav. Glenn Gould plays Bach, Goldberg Variationen [Vinyl]. Membran Media.

Streamed or downloaded

It is necessary to give specific information about where you streamed music from if it is ONLY available through that method. Otherwise, just give as much of the above information as your streaming service gives or you can find elsewhere (the same recording may be available on Amazon for instance). Downloaded music should always give a URL.

Debussy, C. (2005) La Mer. Berliner Philharmoniker conducted by Simon Rattle [Streamed]. EMI Records Ltd.

Sibelius, J. (n.d.) Valse Triste. Erik Helling [Download]. Available online: http://pianosociety.com/cms/index.php?section=70 [Accessed 28/8/2014].

Single artists have names that are reversed (Surname, Initials). Band names are unchanged. Single artists with non-standard names (Lady Gaga, Jessie J, P Diddy etc) should be treated as band names:

Album

Artist (Year) Title of album [Media]. (Version if needed.) Label.

Gaye, M. (1971) What's Going On [Vinyl]. Tamla Records.

Iron Maiden (1998) Powerslave [Audio CD]. Enhanced, original recording remastered. EMI.

Album track

Artist (Year) Title of track. Title of album [Media].(Version if needed.) Label.

Blondie (1978) Hanging on the telephone. Parallel Lines [Vinyl]. Chrysalis Records.

Smith, S. (2014) Like I can. In the Lonely Hour [Audio CD]. Deluxe Edition. Capitol Records.

Streamed or downloaded

It is necessary to give specific information about where you streamed music from if it is ONLY available through that method. Otherwise, just give as much of the above information as your streaming service gives or you can find elsewhere (the same recording may be available on Amazon for instance). Downloaded music should always give a URL.

Davis, M. (2005) Boplicity [Streamed]. Original recordings 1949-1953. Naxos Rights International Ltd.

Macklemore & Lewis, R. (2013) Starting Over. Spotify Sessions [Streamed]. Available online: https://play.spotify.com/album/3LwV3QIDQopbgERx5XJnBz [Accessed 28/8/2014].

Lyrics

Songwriter(s) (Year) Title of Song [Lyrics]. Place of distribution: Distribution company or label or Available online: URL [Accessed date].

Taupin, B. (1973) Candle in the wind [Lyrics]. MCA Records.

Geldof, B. & Ure, M. (1984) Do they know it's Christmas? [Lyrics]. Available online: http://www.azlyrics.com/lyrics/bandaid20/dotheyknowitschristmas.html [Accessed 28/8/2014].

Libretto

These are usually published separately so have publisher details:

Author name(s) (Year) Title of publication [Libretto]. Edition or version if necessary. City of publication: Publisher.

Sondheim, S. & Wheeler, H. (1991) Sweeney Todd [Libretto]. NHB Libretti, new edition. London: Nick Hern Books.

Liner notes are text found on the covers or inner sleeves of vinyl albums or on the little booklets that come inside CDs etc. These can be physical or electronic (for instance if you download an album). Sometimes they do not have individual titles, in which case just leave this out.

Author (Year) Title of notes [Liner notes]. In Title of recording [Media]. Label.

The Damned (1977) Thanks to no-one [Liner notes]. In Damned Damned Damned [Audio CD]. Stiff Records.

Cott, J. (2013) [Liner notes]. Stravinsky: Le Sacre du Printemps. Leonard Bernstein and the New York Philharmonic [Audio CD]. Sony Masterworks.

Live performances

Composer (Year of performance) Title. Name of orchestra/musician. Conducted by Conductor (if relevant). Place of performance, Date of performance.

Strauss, R. (2014) Elektra. BBC Singers and the BBC Symphony Orchestra. Conducted by Semyon Bychkov. Royal Albert Hall, 31 August 2014.

Composer or choreographer (Year of performance) Title. Dance company. Location, Date seen.

Bourne, M. (2014) Lord of the Flies. New Adventures Dance Company. Sadler's Wells, London, 8 October 2014.

In contrast to other live performances, the title of the play is given first, not the playwright.

Title by Author (Year of performance) Directed by Director (or Theatre Company). Location, Date seen.

That's All You Need to Know by Idle Motion (2014) Hull Truck Theatre, 19 September 2014.

The Importance of Being Earnest by Oscar Wilde (2014) Directed by Lucy Bailey. Harold Pinter Theatre, 18 July 2014.

Personal communications etc

For emails from distribution lists, see electronic resources. Be careful about including personal email addresses and respect confidentiality. It is usualy to keep copies and include them in appendices.

Sender Name (Year) Message subject line [Email]. Message sent to Recipient's name (email address if appropriate). Date and time sent.

Heseltine, R. (2014) Reflective writing [Email]. Message sent to J. Bartram (j.bartram@hull.ac.uk). 22 April 2014, 20:49.

Recorded interviews/conversations (including focus groups)

Name of person spoken to (Year) Description of communication [Conversation type]. Date and time of conversation/interview. Place if relevant.

Harlow, J. (2014) The relevance of employability to academic staff [Recorded Conversation]. 27 December 2014, 12:50. University of Hull.

Some supervisors will like you to provide a transcript as an appendix and cite the appendix and line number in your in-text citations - check with them individually.

Non-recorded interviews or conversations

Check with your tutor/supervisor to see if these are usable (they are not considered recoverable data and some academics will not accept them as evidence within your written work). If they are acceptable, give the same information as for recorded interviews/conversations. i.e.

Fallin, L. (2015) Liberal Democrat volunteering opportunities in Hull [Skype interview]. 14 June 2015, 18:30.

Use a description of the letter's contents if it has no obvious title:

Author (Year) Title/description of letter [Letter]. Personal communication, Date on letter.

Smith, J. (2013) Request for help with proofreading [Letter]. Personal communication, 23 January 2013.

Always check with your tutor that they accept lecture notes or other course material in a reference list (many do not). It is always better to read the original sources of the material if available and reference these. Otherwise reference as follows:

Lecturer (Year) Title of lecture, Module title and code [Lecture]. Institution, unpublished.

Bartram, J. (2014) Effective Presentations, Enhanced Information and Research Skills 05056 1314 [Lecture]. University of Hull, unpublished.

See PowerPoint (or other) presentation above if you have access to the actual presentation used rather than relying on your own lecture notes (but still check that it is acceptable to reference this).

Anything else

If you need to reference anything that is not already included in this guide then follow the basic template below.

Author/Creator (Year) Title or description [Medium if not obvious]. Anything that identifies it specifically. Any other information about where or when you saw it or that can help someone else find it.

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This page was last updated 23/05/2016