Chemistry
School of Mathematics & Physical Sciences

Dr Michael Hird

BSc (Hull), PhD (Hull)

Dr Michael Hird

Reader in Organic Chemistry

Chemistry

  • Profile
  • Teaching
  • Research
  • Key publications

Profile

I began my BSc in Chemistry at the University of Hull in October 1983, and graduated in 1986 with a 2nd Class BSc honours degree and was awarded the Sir Brynmor Jones Prize for excellence in experimental chemistry.

Following graduation I continued my studies at the University of Hull with PhD research in the area of synthesis and evaluation of liquid crystals for twisted nematic and ferroelectric displays, graduating in 1990.

From October 1989 I embarked on a two-year period of post-doctoral research at the University of Hull in the synthesis and evaluation of non-linear optical liquid crystals for optical Kerr effect applications.

In October 1991 I was awarded the post of Lecturer in Chemistry at the University of Hull, and was subsequently promoted to Senior Lecturer (1999) and Reader (2005).

During my academic career at the University of Hull I have published over 125 papers in refereed journals, one book and one chapter in a book, been granted 15 patents and made over 200 conference presentations. In 2010 I was awarded the Cyril Hilsum Medal of the British Liquid Crystal Society for 'contributions to liquid crystal science and technology'.

Departmental responsibilities

  • Chemistry Admissions Tutor

Teaching

Teaching interests

  • Organic chemistry

Research

Research theme: Materials Chemistry
Research group: Liquid Crystals and Photonics

Research interests

  • Liquid crystals
  • Organic synthesis
  • Palladium catalysed cross-coupling reactions
  • Ferroelectrics
  • Polymer synthesis

My research is concerned with the design, synthesis and evaluation of liquid crystals. This research has involved a wide variety of liquid crystals, including nematic, ferroelectric, discotic and polymeric, for a range of potential applications, including displays, telecommunications, non-linear optics and organic semiconductors and photovoltaics. A particular emphasis recently has been on bent core liquid crystals, which has involved investigating the location of bend and the degree of bend in liquid crystal molecules, and relating this to mesomorphic properties and in particular the generation of chiral mesophases from achiral molecules.

I am a founder and director of Kingston Chemicals Limited, a spin-out company launched in 2000 to exploit the successful academic research in liquid crystals. The company specializes in ferroelectric liquid crystals, and provides liquid crystal components, mixtures and intermediates to research groups and manufacturing companies throughout the world.

Key publications

Recent and representative publications

  • Synthesis and properties of novel columnar liquid crystals based on symmetrical and non-symmetrical 1,3,5-trisubstituted benzene derivatives, P. J. Stackhouse, A. Wilson, D. Lacey, and M. Hird, Liq. Cryst., 2010, 37, 1191-203. doi: 10.1080/02678292.2010.490647
  • The influence of an alkenyl terminal group on the mesomorphic behaviour and electro-optic properties of fluorinated terphenyl liquid crystals, J. S. Gasowska, S. J. Cowling, M. C. R. Cockett, M. Hird, R. A. Lewis, E. P. Raynes, and J. W. Goodby, J. Mater. Chem., 2010, 20, 299-307. doi: 10.1039/b914260f
  • The dramatic influence of the location of bend and of lateral fluoro substitution on the mesomorphic properties of angular chiral esters based on a 1,3-disubstituted benzene ring, K. M. Fergusson and M. Hird, J. Mater. Chem., 2010, 20, 3069-78. doi: 10.1039/b923267b
  • Influence of acetylene-containing peripheral chains on the mesomorphic properties of triphenylene-based liquid crystals, P. J. Stackhouse and M. Hird, Liq. Cryst., 2009, 36, 953-65. doi: 10.1080/02678290903165490

Full publications list

2010

  • Synthesis and properties of novel columnar liquid crystals based on symmetrical and non-symmetrical 1,3,5-trisubstituted benzene derivatives, P. J. Stackhouse, A. Wilson, D. Lacey, and M. Hird, Liq. Cryst., 2010, 37, 1191-1203. doi: 10.1080/02678292.2010.490647
  • The influence of an alkenyl terminal group on the mesomorphic behaviour and electro-optic properties of fluorinated terphenyl liquid crystals, J. S. Gasowska, S. J. Cowling, M. C. R. Cockett, M. Hird, R. A. Lewis, E. P. Raynes, and J. W. Goodby, J. Mater. Chem., 2010, 20, 299-307. doi: 10.1039/b914260f
  • The dramatic influence of the location of bend and of lateral fluoro substitution on the mesomorphic properties of angular chiral esters based on a 1,3-disubstituted benzene ring, K. M. Fergusson and M. Hird, J. Mater. Chem., 2010, 20, 3069-78. doi: 10.1039/b923267b

2009

  • Influence of acetylene-containing peripheral chains on the mesomorphic properties of triphenylene-based liquid crystals, P. J. Stackhouse and M. Hird, Liq. Cryst., 2009, 36, 953-65. doi: 10.1080/02678290903165490
  • The synthesis and mesomorphic properties of liquid crystals with bulky terminal groups designed for bookshelf geometry ferroelectric mixtures, I. A. Radini and M. Hird, Liq. Cryst., 2009, 36, 1417-30. doi: 10.1080/02678290903268328
  • Measurement of electro-optical parameters of a high contrast FLC film, R. Karapinar, M. O'Neill, and M. Hird, Optics Communications, 2009, 282, 1345-8. doi: 10.1016/j.optcom.2008.12.017
  • Molecular complexity and the control of self-organising processes, J. W. Goodby, I. M. Saez, S. J. Cowling, J. S. Gasowska, R. A. MacDonald, S. Sia, P. Watson, K. J. Toyne, M. Hird, R. A. Lewis, S. E. Lee, and V. Vaschenko, Liq. Cryst., 2009, 36, 567-605. doi: 10.1080/02678290903146060

2008

  • Influence of branched chains on the mesomorphic properties of symmetrical and unsymmetrical triphenylene discotic liquid crystals, P. J. Stackhouse and M. Hird, Liq. Cryst., 2008, 35, 597-607. doi: 10.1080/02678290802040026

2007

  • Conformational distribution of a ferroelectric liquid crystal revealed using fingerprint vibrational spectroscopy and the density functional theory, R. Korlacki, M. Steiner, A. J. Meixner, J. K. Vij, M. Hird, and J. W. Goodby, J. Chem. Phys., 2007, 126, 224904. doi: 10.1063/1.2741557
  • Low electric-field-induced switching in the B1 bent-core liquid crystal phase, J. Kirchhoff, L. S. Hirst, K. M. Fergusson, and M. Hird, Appl. Phys. Lett., 2007, 90, 161905. doi: 10.1063/1.2724774
  • Fluorinated liquid crystals - properties and applications, M. Hird, Chem. Soc. Rev., 2007, 36, 2070-95. doi: 10.1039/b610738a
  • A helical liquid-crystal phase generated by a chiral ester with a bent-core molecular architecture, K. M. Fergusson and M. Hird, Adv. Mater., 2007, 19, 211-4. doi: 10.1002/adma.200601002
  • Determination of the Landau potential of chiral enantiomer ferroelectric liquid crystal mixtures, P. Archer, I. Dierking, and M. Hird, Soft Matter, 2007, 3, 207-13. doi: 10.1039/b613021f

2006

  • High tilt antiferroelectric esters bearing a perfluorobutanoyloxy terminal chain: the influence of lateral fluoro substituents on mesomorphic behaviour, tilt angle, and spontaneous polarization, A. I. Stipetic, J. W. Goodby, M. Hird, Y. M. Raoul, and H. F. Gleeson, Liq. Cryst., 2006, 33, 819-28. doi: 10.1080/026782900722999
  • Extension of the resonant scattering technique to liquid crystals without resonant element, P. Fernandes, P. Barois, E. Grelet, F. Nallet, J. W. Goodby, M. Hird, and J. S. Micha, Eur. Phys. J. E, 2006, 20, 81-7. doi: 10.1140/epje/i2006-10006-4
  • Iron nanoparticles in the coupling of alkyl halides with aryl Grignard reagents, R. B. Bedford, M. Betham, D. W. Bruce, S. A. Davis, R. M. Frost, and M. Hird, Chem. Commun., 2006, 1398-400. doi: 10.1039/b601014h
  • Iron-phosphine, -phosphite, -arsine, and -carbene catalysts for the coupling of primary and secondary 2 alkyl halides with aryl Grignard reagents, R. B. Bedford, M. Betham, D. W. Bruce, A. A. Danopoulos, R. M. Frost, and M. Hird, J. Org. Chem., 2006, 71, 1104-10. doi: 10.1021/jo052250+

2005

  • Monodisperse aromatic oligomers of defined structure and large size through selective and sequential Suzuki palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions, S. Lightowler and M. Hird, Chem. Mater., 2005, 17, 5538-49. doi: 10.1021/cm0512068
  • Self-assembly of biaxial ordering and molecular tilt angle of chiral smectic liquid crystals in homeotropically aligned cells investigated using infrared spectroscopy, R. Korlacki, A. Fukuda, J. K. Vij, A. Kocot, V. Gortz, M. Hird, and J. W. Goodby, Phys. Rev. E, 2005, 72, 041704. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevE.72.041704
  • Simple iron-amine catalysts for the cross-coupling of aryl Grignards with alkyl halides bearing beta-hydrogens, R. B. Bedford, D. W. Bruce, R. M. Frost, and M. Hird, Chem. Commun., 2005, 4161-3. doi: 10.1039/b507133j

2004

  • Self-assembled uniaxial and biaxial multilayer structures in chiral smectic liquid crystals frustrated between ferro- and antiferroelectricity, V. P. Panov, N. M. Shtykov, A. Fukuda, J. K. Vij, Y. Suzuki, R. A. Lewis, M. Hird, and J. W. Goodby, Phys. Rev. E, 2004, 69, 060701. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevE.69.060701
  • Palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions in the synthesis of novel aromatic polymers, S. Lightowler and M. Hird, Chem. Mater., 2004, 16, 3963-71. doi: 10.1021/cm0493694
  • Synthesis, mesomorphic behaviour and optical anisotropy of some novel materials for nematic mixtures of high birefringence, M. Hird, K. J. Toyne, J. W. Goodby, G. W. Gray, V. Minter, R. P. Tuffin, and D. G. McDonnell, J. Mater. Chem., 2004, 14, 1731-43. doi: 10.1039/b400630e
  • Chirality issues and interesting properties of achiral and racemic materials with bent molecular structures, M. Hird, Y. Raoul, J. W. Goodby, and H. Gleeson, Ferroelectrics, 2004, 309, 95-101. doi: 10.1080/00150190490509971
  • On the temperature dependence of the tilt and spontaneous polarisation in high tilt antiferroelectric liquid crystals, H. F. Gleeson, Y. Wang, S. Watson, D. Sahagun-Sanchez, J. W. Goodby, M. Hird, A. Petrenko, and M. A. Osipov, J. Mater. Chem., 2004, 14, 1480-5. doi: 10.1039/b314747a
  • Iron(III) salen-type catalysts for the cross-coupling of aryl Grignards with alkyl halides bearing beta-hydrogens, R. B. Bedford, D. W. Bruce, R. M. Frost, J. W. Goodby, and M. Hird, Chem. Commun., 2004, 2822-3. doi: 10.1039/b413790f

2003

  • Publisher's Note: Molecular orientation and the infrared dichroism of a chiral smectic liquid crystal in a homogeneously aligned cell at different temperature and bias fields (vol 68, art no 031707, 2003), A. A. Sigarev, J. K. Vij, R. A. Lewis, M. Hird, and J. W. Goodby, Phys. Rev. E, 2003, 68, 059902. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevE.68.059902
  • Molecular orientation and the infrared dichroism of a chiral smectic liquid crystal in a homogeneously aligned cell at different temperature and bias fields, A. A. Sigarev, J. K. Vij, R. A. Lewis, M. Hird, and J. W. Goodby, Phys. Rev. E, 2003, 68, 031707. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevE.68.031707
  • An experimental and theoretical investigation into the reflection spectra of SmC* and SmCA* phases, N. W. Roberts, H. F. Gleeson, N. Bowring, A. Seed, L. N. Nassif, M. R. Herbert, J. W. Goodby, and M. Hird, J. Mater. Chem., 2003, 13, 353-9. doi: 10.1039/b208506b
  • Optical rotatory power, biaxiality, and models of chiral tilted smectic phases, V. P. Panov, J. K. Vij, N. M. Shtykov, S. S. Seomun, D. D. Parghi, M. Hird, and J. W. Goodby, Phys. Rev. E, 2003, 68, 021702. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevE.68.021702
  • The fascinating influence of fluoro substituents on the synthesis and properties of liquid crystals, M. Hird, J. W. Goodby, R. A. Lewis, and K. J. Toyne, Mol. Cryst. Liquid Cryst., 2003, 401, 115-32. doi: 10.1080/15421400390243138
  • Influence of electric fields on the smectic layer structure of ferroelectric and antiferroelectric liquid crystal devices, S. J. Watson, L. S. Matkin, L. J. Baylis, N. Bowring, H. F. Gleeson, M. Hird, and J. Goodby, Phys. Rev. E, 2002, 65, 031705. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevE.65.031705

2002

  • Optical Bragg reflections from a series of antiferroelectric hetrocyclic esters, U. Singh, H. F. Gleeson, J. W. Goodby, and M. Hird, Ferroelectrics, 2002, 277, 467-81. doi: 10.1080/00150190190027249
  • Polymer dispersed ferroelectric liquid crystal films with high electro-optic quality, R. Karapinar, M. O'Neill, and M. Hird, J. Phys. D, 2002, 35, 900-5. doi:
  • Interlayer structures of the chiral smectic liquid crystal phases revealed by resonant x-ray scattering, L. S. Hirst, S. J. Watson, H. F. Gleeson, P. Cluzeau, P. Barois, R. Pindak, J. Pitney, A. Cady, P. M. Johnson, C. C. Huang, A. M. Levelut, G. Srajer, J. Pollmann, W. Caliebe, A. Seed, M. R. Herbert, J. W. Goodby, and M. Hird, Phys. Rev. E, 2002, 65, 041705. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevE.65.041705
  • The design, synthesis and structure-property relationships of ferroelectric and antiferroelectric liquid crystal materials, M. Hird, J. W. Goodby, P. Hindmarsh, R. A. Lewis, and K. J. Toyne, Ferroelectrics, 2002, 276, 219-37. doi: 10.1080/00150190190027870
  • The determination of the conformation of the aromatic rings in a lateral fluoro-substituted liquid crystal by C-13 NMR spectroscopy, F. Castiglione, J. W. Emsley, M. Hird, and J. M. Street, PCCP, 2002, 4, 4921-30. doi: 10.1039/b206271m

2001

  • Dielectric and optical rotatory power investigations of an antiferroelectric liquid crystal 12OF1M7 in a homeotropic cell: implications for models of the structure of ferrielectric phases, N. M. Shtykov, J. K. Vij, R. A. Lewis, M. Hird, and J. W. Goodby, Liq. Cryst., 2001, 28, 1699-704. doi:
  • Resonant x-ray scattering study of the antiferroelectric and ferrielectric phases in liquid crystal devices, L. S. Matkin, S. J. Watson, H. F. Gleeson, R. Pindak, J. Pitney, P. M. Johnson, C. C. Huang, P. Barois, A. M. Levelut, G. Srajer, J. Pollmann, J. W. Goodby, and M. Hird, Phys. Rev. E, 2001, 64, 021705. doi:
  • The synthesis and mesomorphic properties of some novel antiferroelectric liquid crystals, M. Hird, J. W. Goodby, K. J. Toyne, H. F. Gleeson, I. P. Buxton, A. J. Seed, and M. R. Herbert, Mol. Cryst. Liquid Cryst., 2001, 365, 1169-76. doi:
  • The development of materials, mixtures and gels for ferroelectric displays, M. Hird, J. W. Goodby, and K. J. Toyne, Mol. Cryst. Liquid Cryst., 2001, 360, 1-15. doi:
  • Novel liquid crystals with a bent molecular shape containing a 1,5-disubstituted 2,3,4-trifluorophenyl unit. Banana-shaped liquid crystals - synthesis and properties, M. Hird, J. W. Goodby, N. Gough, and K. J. Toyne, J. Mater. Chem., 2001, 11, 2732-42. doi:
  • Trans-1,2-difluorostilbenes: Promising materials for high dielectric biaxiality ferroelectric mixtures, J. W. Goodby, P. Hindmarsh, M. Hird, R. A. Lewis, and K. J. Toyne, Mol. Cryst. Liquid Cryst., 2001, 364, 889-98. doi:
  • An introduction to Materials Discussion No. 4: Molecular topology in liquid crystals - 11-14 September 2001, Grasmere, J. W. Goodby, D. W. Bruce, M. Hird, C. Imrie, and M. Neal, J. Mater. Chem., 2001, 11, 2631-6. doi:
  • The synthesis and transition temperatures of 5-(4-alkyl- and 4-alkoxy-phenyl)-2-cyanobenzo [b] furans and a 5-(4 '-alkylbiphenyl-4-yl)-2-cyanobenzo [b] furan: a comparison with their biphenyl and terphenyl analogues, M. R. Friedman, K. J. Toyne, J. W. Goodby, and M. Hird, Liq. Cryst., 2001, 28, 901-12. doi:
  • The synthesis and transition temperatures of 2-(4-alkyl- and 4-alkoxy-phenyl)-5-cyano-1-benzofurans and related diaryl-1-benzofurans - an assessment of how deviations from linearity and conformational effects in a core unit affect mesogenicity, M. R. Friedman, K. J. Toyne, J. W. Goodby, and M. Hird, J. Mater. Chem., 2001, 11, 2759-72. doi:
  • Orientational ordering in the chiral smectic-C-F12* liquid crystal phase determined by resonant polarized x-ray diffraction, A. Cady, J. A. Pitney, R. Pindak, L. S. Matkin, S. J. Watson, H. F. Gleeson, P. Cluzeau, P. Barois, A. M. Levelut, W. Caliebe, J. W. Goodby, M. Hird, and C. C. Huang, Phys. Rev. E, 2001, 64, 050702. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevE.64.050702

2000

  • Field-induced phase transitions in an antiferroelectric liquid crystal using the pyroelectric effect, N. M. Shtykov, J. K. Vij, R. A. Lewis, M. Hird, and J. W. Goodby, Phys. Rev. E, 2000, 62, 2279-87. doi:
  • Synthesis, transition temperatures, and optical properties of various 2,6-disubstituted naphthalenes and related 1-benzothiophenes with butylsulfanyl and cyano or isothiocyanato terminal groups, A. J. Seed, K. J. Toyne, J. W. Goodby, and M. Hird, J. Mater. Chem., 2000, 10, 2069-80. doi:
  • A twist grain boundary phase with a local antiferroelectric structure, A. S. Petrenko, M. Hird, R. A. Lewis, J. G. Meier, J. C. Jones, and J. W. Goodby, J. Phys.-Condes. Matter, 2000, 12, 8577-93. doi:
  • The structural transformations with temperature and electric field in antiferroelectric liquid crystals, Y. P. Panarin, O. E. Kalinovskaya, J. K. Vij, D. D. Parghi, M. Hird, and J. W. Goodby, Ferroelectrics, 2000, 244, 483-90. doi:
  • Towards low birefringent achiral smectic C hosts for new display applications, J. G. Meier, S. T. Lagerwall, M. Hird, and J. W. Goodby, Ferroelectrics, 2000, 243, 87-94. doi:
  • Resonant x-ray scattering at the Se edge in liquid crystal free-standing films and devices, L. S. Matkin, H. F. Gleeson, P. Mach, C. C. Huang, R. Pindak, G. Srajer, J. Pollmann, J. W. Goodby, M. Hird, and A. Seed, Appl. Phys. Lett., 2000, 76, 1863-5. doi:
  • Electric field-induced layer deformations in the subphases of an antiferroelectric liquid crystal device, L. S. Matkin, H. F. Gleeson, L. J. Baylis, S. J. Watson, N. Bowring, A. Seed, M. Hird, and J. W. Goodby, Appl. Phys. Lett., 2000, 77, 340-2. doi:
  • Structure of the liquid-crystal ferrielectric phases as determined by ellipsometry, P. M. Johnson, D. A. Olson, S. Pankratz, T. Nguyen, J. Goodby, M. Hird, and C. C. Huang, Phys. Rev. Lett., 2000, 84, 4870-3. doi:
  • Nematic materials with negative dielectric anisotropy for display applications, M. Hird, J. W. Goodby, and K. J. Toyne, in 'Liquid Crystal Materials, Devices, and Flat Panel Displays', ed. R. G. B. Shashidhar, Bellingham, 2000.
  • Ferroelectric liquid crystalline materials: Hosts, dopants and gels for display applications, J. W. Goodby, K. J. Toyne, M. Hird, P. Styring, R. A. Lewis, A. Beer, C. C. Dong, M. E. Glendenning, J. C. Jones, K. P. Lymer, A. J. Slaney, V. Minter, and L. K. M. Chan, Mol. Cryst. Liquid Cryst., 2000, 346, 169-82. doi:
  • Chiral liquid crystals for ferroelectric, electroclinic and antiferroelectric displays and photonic devices, J. W. Goodby, K. J. Toyne, M. Hird, P. Styring, R. A. Lewis, A. Beer, C. C. Dong, M. E. Glendenning, J. C. Jones, K. P. Lymer, A. J. Slaney, V. Minter, and L. K. M. Chan, in 'Liquid Crystal Materials, Devices, and Flat Panel Displays', ed. R. G. B. Shashidhar, Bellingham, 2000.
  • Liquid-crystalline Abrikosov flux phase with an antiferroelectric structure, J. W. Goodby, A. Petrenko, M. Hird, R. A. Lewis, J. Meier, and J. C. Jones, Chem. Commun., 2000, 1149-50. doi:
  • The synthesis and properties of host materials with fluoro substituents in the core and in a terminal chain for high dielectric biaxiality FLC mixtures, J. W. Goodby, M. Hird, J. C. Jones, R. A. Lewis, I. C. Sage, and K. J. Toyne, Ferroelectrics, 2000, 243, 19-26. doi:
  • The synthesis and mesomorphic properties of 4,4 ''-dialkyl-2,2 ',3-and 2,2 ',3 '-trifluoro-1,1 ': 4 ',1 ''-terphenyls for high dielectric biaxiality ferroelectric liquid crystal mixtures, M. E. Glendenning, J. W. Goodby, M. Hird, and K. J. Toyne, J. Chem. Soc., Perkin Trans. 2, 2000, 27-34. doi:
  • Synthesis, transition temperatures, and optical properties of compounds with simple phenyl units linked by double bond, triple bond, ester or propiolate linkages, G. J. Cross, A. J. Seed, K. J. Toyne, J. W. Goodby, M. Hird, and M. C. Artal, J. Mater. Chem., 2000, 10, 1555-63. doi:
  • The effect of EDTA and fulvic acid on Cd, Zn, and Cu toxicity to a bioluminescent construct (pUCD607) of Escherichia coli, C. D. Campbell, M. Hird, D. G. Lumsdon, and J. C. L. Meeussen, Chemosphere, 2000, 40, 319-25. doi:

1999

  • Observation of an SmC alpha* phase in an antiferroelectric liquid crystal using pyroelectrics and dielectrics, N. M. Shtykov, J. K. Vij, V. P. Panov, R. A. Levis, M. Hird, and J. W. Goodby, J. Mater. Chem., 1999, 9, 1383-5. doi:
  • A comparison of the optical and steric tilt in antiferroelectric liquid crystals, J. T. Mills, H. F. Gleeson, J. W. Goodby, M. Hird, A. Seed, and P. Styring, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. Sci. Technol. Sect. A-Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst., 1999, 330, 1693-700. doi:
  • Structures of chiral smectic-C mesophases revealed by polarization-analyzed resonant x-ray scattering, P. Mach, R. Pindak, A. M. Levelut, P. Barois, H. T. Nguyen, H. Baltes, M. Hird, K. Toyne, A. Seed, J. W. Goodby, C. C. Huang, and L. Furenlid, Phys. Rev. E, 1999, 60, 6793-802. doi:
  • The synthesis and properties of fluorinated quinoline liquid crystals, R. A. Lewis, J. W. Goodby, M. Hird, and K. J. Toyne, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. Sci. Technol. Sect. A-Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst., 1999, 332, 2849-55. doi:
  • Novel and unexpected deamination during the palladium-catalysed cross-coupling of haloanilines and arylboronic acids, M. Hird, A. J. Seed, and K. J. Toyne, Synlett, 1999, 438-40. doi:
  • Synthesis and physical properties of a novel difluoroterphenyl ferroelectric liquid crystal with a fluorine at the chiral centre, N. Gouch, D. D. Parghi, R. A. Lewis, and M. Hird, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. Sci. Technol. Sect. A-Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst., 1999, 332, 2857-+. doi:
  • Liquid crystal films grown by pulsed laser deposition, J. Gonzalo, P. E. Dyer, H. V. Snelling, and M. Hird, Appl. Surf. Sci., 1999, 138, 179-83. doi:
  • The synthesis and mesomorphic properties of 2,2 ',3-tri- and 2,2 ',3,3 '-tetra-fluoro-1,1 ': 4 ',1 ''-terphenyls for high dielectric biaxiality ferroelectric liquid crystal mixtures, M. E. Glendenning, J. W. Goodby, M. Hird, and K. J. Toyne, J. Chem. Soc., Perkin Trans. 2, 1999, 481-91. doi:
  • The synthesis and properties of fluoroterphenyls for high dielectric biaxiality ferroelectric liquid crystal mixtures, M. E. Glendenning, J. W. Goodby, M. Hird, J. C. Jones, K. J. Toyne, A. J. Slaney, and V. Minter, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. Sci. Technol. Sect. A-Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst., 1999, 332, 2831-8. doi:
  • Preliminary communication - A possible structural model of the SmC beta* phase, H. F. Gleeson, L. Baylis, W. K. Robinson, J. T. Mills, J. W. Goodby, A. Seed, M. Hird, P. Styring, C. Rosenblatt, and S. Zhang, Liq. Cryst., 1999, 26, 1415-9. doi:
  • Conoscopic observations of multiple ferrielectricity in a chiral liquid crystal, L. J. Baylis, H. F. Gleeson, A. J. Seed, P. J. Styring, M. Hird, and J. W. Goodby, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. Sci. Technol. Sect. A-Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst., 1999, 328, 13-20. doi:
  • XeCl laser deposition of liquid crystals: results and mechanisms, D. A. Allwood, P. E. Dyer, J. Gonzalo, H. V. Snelling, and M. Hird, Chem. Phys. Lett., 1999, 301, 91-7. doi:

1998

  • Design of Low-molar Mass Thermomesogens in the Search for Biaxial Nematic Liquid Crystals, K. Praefcke, D. Blunk, D. Singer, J. W. Goodby, K. J. Toyne, M. Hird, P. Styring, and W. Norbert, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. Sci. Technol. Sect. A-Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst., 1998, 323, 231-59. doi:
  • X-ray and optical studies of the tilted phases of materials exhibiting antiferroelectric, ferrielectric and ferroelectric mesophases, J. T. Mills, H. F. Gleeson, J. W. Goodby, M. Hird, A. Seed, and P. Styring, J. Mater. Chem., 1998, 8, 2385-90. doi:
  • Fast switching bistable polymer-dispersed ferroelectric liquid crystals, R. Karapinar, M. O'Neill, C. J. Newsome, N. Gough, and M. Hird, Ferroelectrics, 1998, 213, 565-72. doi:
  • Observation of exotic subphases in an antiferroelectric liquid crystal, O. E. Kalinovskaya, Y. P. Panarin, J. K. Vij, A. J. Seed, M. Hird, and J. W. Goodby, Ferroelectrics, 1998, 212, 239-47. doi:
  • Fluoro Substitution in Thermotropic Liquid Crystals, M. Hird and K. J. Toyne, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. Sci. Technol. Sect. A-Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst., 1998, 323, 1-67. doi:
  • The synthesis of novel highly substituted benzene derivatives for use in palladium-catalysed cross-coupling reactions, M. Hird, R. A. Lewis, K. J. Toyne, J. J. West, and M. K. Wilson, J. Chem. Soc. Perkin Trans. 1, 1998, 3479-84. doi:
  • Novel ferroelectric mixtures for fast switching devices, N. Gough, M. Hird, C. J. Newsome, M. O'Neill, and A. K. Samra, Ferroelectrics, 1998, 212, 293-300. doi:
  • Properties of liquid crystal thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition, J. Gonzalo, D. A. Allwood, P. E. Dyer, and M. Hird, in 'Laser Applications in Microelectronic and Optoelectronic Manufacturing Iii', ed. J. J. D. P. E. Dubowski, Bellingham, 1998.
  • Unsymmetrical alkoxy-substituted triphenylenes: the dependence of mesomorphism on molecular shape, S. J. Cross, J. W. Goodby, A. W. Hall, M. Hird, S. M. Kelly, K. J. Toyne, and C. Wu, Liq. Cryst., 1998, 25, 1-11. doi:

1997

  • Heterocyclic esters exhibiting frustrated liquid crystal phases, A. J. Seed, M. Hird, P. Styring, H. F. Gleeson, and J. T. Mills, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. Sci. Technol. Sect. A-Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst., 1997, 299, 19-25. doi:
  • The synthesis and mesomorphic behaviour of the 1,2,4,5-tetra-substituted benzenes with (4-tridecyloxyphenyl)ethynyl and (4-tridecyloxyphenyl)carbonyloxy substituents, W. Norbert, J. W. Goodby, M. Hird, and K. J. Toyne, Liq. Cryst., 1997, 22, 631-42. doi:
  • The physical properties of a series of antiferroelectric heterocyclic esters, J. Mills, R. Miller, H. Gleeson, A. Seed, M. Hird, and P. Styring, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. Sci. Technol. Sect. A-Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst., 1997, 303, 145-52. doi:
  • Optically active dopants incorporating a 2,4-disubstituted oxazoline ring, A. G. M. Lamb, M. Hird, S. M. Kelly, and J. W. Goodby, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. Sci. Technol. Sect. A-Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst., 1997, 303, 279-84. doi:
  • Pulsed laser deposition of liquid crystals, J. Gonzalo, P. E. Dyer, and M. Hird, Appl. Phys. Lett., 1997, 71, 2752-4. doi:

1996

  • Investigation of the field induced ferroelectric subphases in antiferroelectric liquid crystals, Y. P. Panarin, H. Xu, S. T. MacLughadha, J. K. Vij, A. Seed, M. Hird, and J. W. Goodby, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. Sci. Technol. Sect. C-Mol. Mat., 1996, 6, 69-77. doi:
  • Pyroelectric properties of an antiferroelectric liquid crystal, J. W. Osullivan, Y. P. Panarin, J. K. Vij, A. J. Seed, M. Hird, and J. W. Goodby, J. Phys.-Condes. Matter, 1996, 8, L551-L6. doi:
  • An investigation into the effect of lateral fluoro substitution in the molecular core on the spontaneous polarization of chiral cyclohexanes, S. J. Lock, J. W. Goodby, M. Hird, and K. J. Toyne, Liq. Cryst., 1996, 21, 279-89. doi:
  • 5-bromo-2-iodopyrimidine: A novel, useful intermediate in selective palladium-catalysed cross-coupling reactions for efficient convergent syntheses, J. W. Goodby, M. Hird, R. A. Lewis, and K. J. Toyne, Chem. Commun., 1996, 2719-20. doi

1995

  • Investigation of the Tgba-Asterisk Phase in a Ferroelectric Liquid-Crystal Using Dielectric-Spectroscopy, H. Xu, Y. P. Panarin, J. K. Vij, A. J. Seed, M. Hird, and J. W. Goodby, J. Phys.-Condes. Matter, 1995, 7, 7443-52. doi:
  • Electro-optic and piezo-optic studies of an antiferro-ferri-ferro-electric system, W. K. Robinson, C. Carboni, H. F. Gleeson, M. Hird, P. Styring, and A. Seed, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. Sci. Technol. Sect. A-Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst., 1995, 263, 69-79. doi:
  • An Investigation of the Field-Induced Ferrielectric Subphases in Antiferroelectric Liquid-Crystals, Y. P. Panarin, H. Xu, S. T. Maclughadha, J. K. Vij, A. J. Seed, M. Hird, and J. W. Goodby, J. Phys.-Condes. Matter, 1995, 7, L351-L60. doi:
  • The synthesis, mesomorphic behaviour and the uniaxial nature of 1,2,4,5-tetra(4-alkoxybenzoyloxy)benzenes, W. Norbert, J. W. Goodby, M. Hird, K. J. Toyne, J. C. Jones, and J. S. Patel, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. Sci. Technol. Sect. A-Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst., 1995, 260, 339-50. doi:
  • Mesomorphic properties and spontaneous polarization of ferroelectric liquid crystal mixtures based on chiral dopants synthesized by chiral hydroboration, S. J. Lock, J. W. Goodby, M. Hird, and K. J. Toyne, J. Mater. Chem., 1995, 5, 2175-82. doi:
  • Synthesis and Transition-Temperatures of Host Materials for Ferroelectric Mixtures, M. Hird, K. J. Toyne, A. J. Slaney, and J. W. Goodby, J. Mater. Chem., 1995, 5, 423-30. doi:
  • The synthesis and transition temperatures of some ortho-dichloroterphenyls for ferroelectric mixtures, M. Hird, K. J. Toyne, P. Hindmarsh, J. C. Jones, and V. Minter, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. Sci. Technol. Sect. A-Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst., 1995, 260, 227-40. doi:
  • The Relationship between Molecular-Structure and Mesomorphic Properties of 2,2'-Difluoroterphenyls and 3,2'-Difluoroterphenyls Synthesized by Palladium-Catalyzed Cross-Couplings, M. Hird, K. J. Toyne, G. W. Gray, D. G. McDonnell, and I. C. Sage, Liq. Cryst., 1995, 18, 1-11. doi:
  • Cyclohexenyl triflates and arylboronic acids in palladium-catalysed cross-couplings - Synthesis and transition temperatures of some fluoro-substituted biphenylylcyclohexenes, M. Hird and K. J. Toyne, J. Mater. Chem., 1995, 5, 2239-45. doi:
  • Investigation of the effect of bulky lateral substituents on the discotic mesophase behaviour of triphenylene benzoates, P. Hindmarsh, M. J. Watson, M. Hird, and J. W. Goodby, J. Mater. Chem., 1995, 5, 2111-23. doi:
  • The Synthesis and Transition-Temperatures of Some 4'-Alkyl-4-Cyano-3-Fluorobiphenyls and 4'-Alkoxy-4-Cyano-3-Fluorobiphenyls, G. W. Gray, M. Hird, A. D. Ifill, W. E. Smith, and K. J. Toyne, Liq. Cryst., 1995, 19, 77-83. doi:

1994

  • The Synthesis and Transition-Temperatures of Some Ferroelectric Host Materials Based on 4-(Trans-4-Alkylcyclohexylmethoxy)-2,3-Difluorobiphenyls and 4'-(Trans-4-Alkylcyclohexylmethoxy)-2,3-Difluorobiphenyls, M. Hird, K. J. Toyne, and G. W. Gray, Liq. Cryst., 1994, 16, 625-41. doi:
  • A Novel, Efficient and General Synthetic Route to Unsymmetrical Triphenylene Mesogens Using Palladium-Catalyzed Cross-Coupling Reactions, J. W. Goodby, M. Hird, K. J. Toyne, and T. Watson, J. Chem. Soc., Chem. Commun., 1994, 1701-2. doi:

1993

  • The Synthesis and Transition-Temperatures of Some Difluoro-Substituted Cyclohexanes, M. Hird, K. J. Toyne, A. J. Slaney, J. W. Goodby, and G. W. Gray, J. Chem. Soc., Perkin Trans. 2, 1993, 2337-49. doi:
  • The Synthesis and High Optical Birefringence of Nematogens Incorporating 2,6-Disubstituted Naphthalenes and Terminal Cyano-Substituents, M. Hird, K. J. Toyne, G. W. Gray, S. E. Day, and D. G. McDonnell, Liq. Cryst., 1993, 15, 123-50. doi:
  • Palladium-Catalyzed Cross-Coupling Reactions in the Synthesis of Some High Polarizability Materials, M. Hird, K. J. Toyne, and G. W. Gray, Liq. Cryst., 1993, 14, 741-61. doi:
  • Synthesis, Transition-Temperatures and Optical Anisotropy of Some Isothiocyanato-Substituted Biphenyls, M. Hird, A. J. Seed, K. J. Toyne, J. W. Goodby, G. W. Gray, and D. G. McDonnell, J. Mater. Chem., 1993, 3, 851-9. doi:
  • Lateral Substitution in the Peripheral Moieties of Triphenylen-2,3,6,7,10,11-Hexayl Hexakis(4-Alkoxybenzoate)S - Dimethyl-Substituted Systems, P. Hindmarsh, M. Hird, P. Styring, and J. W. Goodby, J. Mater. Chem., 1993, 3, 1117-28. doi:

1992

  • The Synthesis and Transition-Temperatures of Some Trans-4-Alkylcyclohexylethyl-Substituted 2,3-Difluorobiphenyls, M. Hird, G. W. Gray, and K. J. Toyne, Liq. Cryst., 1992, 11, 531-46. doi:

1991

  • The Synthesis and Transition-Temperatures of Some Lateral Cyano-Substituted-1,1'-4',1''-Terphenyls, M. Hird, G. W. Gray, and K. J. Toyne, Mol. Cryst. Liquid Cryst., 1991, 206, 205-21. doi:
  • Cross-Coupling Reactions in the Synthesis of Liquid-Crystals, M. Hird, G. W. Gray, and K. J. Toyne, Mol. Cryst. Liquid Cryst., 1991, 206, 187-204. doi:
  • The Synthesis and Transition-Temperatures of Some Lateral Monofluoro-Substituted 4,4''-Dialkyl- and 4,4''-Alkoxyalkyl-1,1' - 4',1''-Terphenyls, G. W. Gray, M. Hird, and K. J. Toyne, Mol. Cryst. Liquid Cryst., 1991, 195, 221-37. doi:
  • Some Developments in the Synthesis of Liquid-Crystal Materials, G. W. Gray, M. Hird, and K. J. Toyne, Mol. Cryst. Liquid Cryst., 1991, 202, 91-110. doi:
  • The Synthesis of Several Lateral Difluoro-Substituted 4,4''-Dialkyl-Terphenyl and 4,4''-Alkoxyalkyl-Terphenyl and a Rationalization of the Effect of Such Substitution on Mesophase Type and Transition-Temperatures, G. W. Gray, M. Hird, and K. J. Toyne, Mol. Cryst. Liquid Cryst., 1991, 202, 43-64. doi:

1990

  • The Synthesis and Properties of Some Novel Ferroelectric Materials - Hosts and Dopants, G. W. Gray, M. Hird, D. Lacey, and K. J. Toyne, Mol. Cryst. Liquid Cryst., 1990, 191, 1-8. doi:

1989

  • The Synthesis and Transition-Temperatures of Some Fluoro-Substituted 4-Cyanophenyl and 4-Cyanobiphenyl-4'-Yl 4-Pentyl-Benzoate and 4-Butoxy-Benzoate, G. W. Gray, M. Hird, D. Lacey, and K. J. Toyne, Mol. Cryst. Liquid Cryst., 1989, 172, 165-89. doi:
  • The Synthesis and Transition-Temperatures of Some 4,4''-Dialkyl-1,1'-4',1''-Terphenyl and 4,4''-Alkoxyalkyl-1,1'-4',1''-Terphenyl with 2,3-Difluoro or 2',3'-Difluoro Substituents and of Their Biphenyl Analogs, G. W. Gray, M. Hird, D. Lacey, and K. J. Toyne, J. Chem. Soc., Perkin Trans. 2, 1989, 2041-53. doi:
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